Yangon - the capital of which country? Yangon, Myanmar: description, history, population, economy, sights
Anyone who is not interested in toponymy, a science that studies geographical names and their origin, will find it difficult to answer the question of whether Yangon is the capital of which country. The article will look at this topic in more detail.
A bit of history
Until 1989, there was a state of Burma on the world map with the capital city of Rangoon. What happened in 1989, which led to the change of the name of the country and its capital? The military came to power, returning the country its original name - Myanmar, which was before the enslavement of the British colonialists. This is the British called their colony Burma. The capital, which bore the English name Rangoon until 1989, returned to its former name - Yangon. But on the flag of Yangon left the name of the city in Burmese.
Not all states have clearly responded to the change of the name of the country, and to the changes taking place in it. Myanmar is currently developing. Much attention is paid to tourism, the development of transport and hotel infrastructure.
General ideas about the country
The country is located in southwest Asia. The south of Myanmar from Yangon to Sittwe is washed by the Bay of Bengal and Martaban Bay, as well as the Andaman Sea. Several countries border Myanmar: China, Bangladesh, India, Thailand, Laos.
90% of Myanmar’s population is Buddhist. Like no other country in the world, astrology is very important in Myanmar. There are many ancient pagodas in the country that existed from the beginning of time to the creation of the present world. It affects the rich decoration of temple complexes, consisting of gold plates, gold bars, precious and semi-precious stones. And with all this luxury Myanmar belongs to the agrarian countries.
Of the more than 53 million inhabitants, 70% are engaged in agriculture in relatively flat areas of Myanmar in the central part and in the southeast. The official language of Myanmar is Burmese. There are more than 100 dialects spoken in the country.English is common in tourist centers.
The former capital of Myanmar, Yangon, has been and remains the cultural center of the country. It is difficult to answer the question of why the country's leadership made a decision to transfer the capital, and what did not suit the former capital of Myanmar. Moreover, the place where the capital of Myanmar was transferred, until 2000, was an ordinary small village of Chepyi.
As a transfer option, this could be the recommendation of the astrologers, whom everyone in the country listens to, from the peasant to the king. Moreover, not only the date of sending state employees to the new capital, but also the exact time was scheduled. The capital was called Neypyidaw, which means "the abode of kings". It was built in just a few years among the virgin forests. The city continues to be upset. And pagodas are being built in it, in which, like in the pagodas of Yangon, untold riches of the kings' dynasties and artifacts of excavations are stored. Already built a reduced copy of the Shwedagon Pagoda - Uppatasanti Pagoda. The former capital and the present are connected by a new beautiful highway. The distance between them is 300 kilometers.
About six million people live in the largest and most populated city of Myanmar. The history of Yangon is rooted in a very distant past. Archaeological excavations helped to establish the date of the first appearance of people in these places. These were the settlements of fishermen on the river Yangon in the V century BC. er At the beginning of the XI century AD er these places are occupied by the mon people, which gives its settlement the name Dagon. People also fished. In 1755, King Alaunpaya took possession of Dagon and renamed the village Yangon. Then there were wars with Britain. In 1841, Yangon was destroyed by fire.
Rebuilt the city according to the drawings of the British engineer. These are properly lined quarters among green parks, artificial lakes, and a mix of western and traditional architecture. That is how the capital city in 1885 becomes Yangon. Which country capital? Not a country, but a huge British colony that had become by that time. In the city, rebellions against the colonial regime occurred repeatedly. During World War II, Yangon was occupied by the Japanese, but liberated by allied troops. Only 1946 brought Burma independence, and in 1989, their ancestral names were returned to the country and the city.
The city of Yangon is a wonderful combination of the past and the future in the history of the country. Time has stopped here. Its architecture is replete with both high-rise, stately buildings of concrete and glass, and rather modest buildings built during the British colonial era. In Yangon intertwined various styles: Victorian, neoclassical, art deco. Many buildings have decayed, but they should be dealt with and restored. The flood of tourists is more interested in the ancient architecture of the city, and this will be a profitable item in the country's budget.
Yangon - the economic center of Myanmar
Myanmar's largest city is Yangon. This is a shopping, and industrial, and entertainment center of the country. 1/5 of Myanmar’s gross product is produced in Yangon. The largest center of trade in rice and pulses is also located in it. This is a city of sewing products. About 300 million dollars annually brings textile exports to the treasury of the country. The city is a key commercial center of Myanmar. It is the implementation of all types of products - from basic food to industrial goods.The share in the city and the informal trade is great - it is represented by street spontaneous markets, located along the downtown streets. There are light, food and woodworking enterprises in the city. Recently, the basis of the economy of Yangon steel: construction, oil refining, tourism and shipbuilding.
Myanmar’s largest transportation hub is also Yangon. Its geography is such that you can engage in trade. Therefore, the city has a seaport of Tkhilava, as well as in the Irrawaddy river delta - a river port. The large international airport is located 15 kilometers from the city center. This is the main commercial airport of Myanmar. He has been working since 1947. More than 20 air carriers work with this transport hub. The Myanmar rail network is 5,400 kilometers, with the main terminal in Yangon. The city’s ring railway is approximately 46 kilometers long, with 39 stations connecting the city to the suburbs.
Roads of the city have a length of about 5 thousand kilometers, but many of them are in poor condition. Personal transportation is a luxury. Not everyone in the country has the opportunity to purchase it.The population of the city uses public transport, which has a fleet of 6,300 buses operating on 3,000 routes. There are two international bus stations in the city. Since 1970, the country has taken right-hand traffic, but among private transport there are many vehicles with a steering wheel on the right, imported from Japan, where left-hand traffic is operating.
Myanmar’s best educational institutions are located in its former capital, Yangon. What is the education system in a country where there is inequality between rich and poor schools? Primary schools are not funded by the state. Primary education is actually paid, parents pay tuition. If 3/ of the population is trained in literacy, then only 1/4 of them have the opportunity to complete at least elementary school. In many poor families, children do not have the opportunity to study at school and learn the basics of knowledge in Buddhist monasteries, of which there are many in Myanmar.
Higher education is given in the country by universities and colleges. Currently, the University of Yangon does not train bachelor students. The military government closed the university, and the students were distributed to other universities in the country. The reason for this decision was the uprising of students in 1988.Young people in Yangon can get specialties in medicine, computer technology related to the sea, in Yangon universities: First and Second Medical Universities, University of Computer Studies, Maritime University of Myanmar.
Sights of Yangon
The cultural center of Myanmar is Yangon. Which country's capital could compete with the sights of the age-old culture that this city is so rich with? It is famous for its many pagodas. The world-famous religious monuments - the Shwedagon Pagoda.
According to legend, it stores the hair of the Buddha. The view of this religious structure amazes with its size, divine beauty and luxury. The pagoda rises to 98 meters and is covered with 60 tons of pure gold. The entrance to the Shwedagon is paid. The ticket-sticker will indicate the date of the visit. With this ticket, the entrance to the pagoda is ensured during the day.
The central square in Yangon is occupied by the Sule Pagoda. This is a 48-meter golden stupa. The Botathaun Pagoda attracts attention. It contains real treasures in a golden box. These treasures were brought by a thousand warriors from India to Myanmar.On a large hill, on the spot designated in the central part of the city rises Shuedagoun - a sacred place for Buddhists. The pagoda was built in the 5th century BC. Also noteworthy is the Kaba Aye Pagoda (Pagoda of Universal Peace), built for the 2500th anniversary of Buddhism. All the sights of Yangon are located in the city center, so this is a good walking tour for tourists - from one pagoda to another.
Statue of a reclining buddha
In the Chautaji Pagoda is the most revered in Myanmar and the world's largest marble statue of the Buddha. It was created in the IX century AD. er The statue has impressive dimensions: length - 65 meters, and height - 30 meters. This statue weighs 400 tons. Inside there are rooms with expositions from the description of the life of the Buddha and his teachings.
The story of this statue is interesting. When the territories of Yangon were once again seized, the ransacked riches could be carried away, but not a statue of the Buddha. The conquerors did not raise a hand to do something with it, since they too were Buddhists. Such a trophy was difficult to pick up, so he remained lying in place, absorbed by the jungle. After a while, the British conquered Myanmar decided to build a railway to their colony.As the tunnel was laid, it was discovered that the road was being built through a statue, which at first was mistaken for a hill, and they began to lay a path in it. Construction was stopped, and the statue gained the status of a religious shrine. On the six-foot feet of the reclining Buddha is depicted the "wheel of samsara"
What to see in Yangon?
An equally popular place to visit is the National Museum, operating since 1952. Tourists will be interested in such an exhibit as the famous golden throne Sihasana-Lion. The museum contains historical collections consisting of the regalia of the Burmese kings. Hloga Park is located near the city of Yangon. Its territory includes a zoo built at the beginning of the 20th century with more than 200 animal species and all kinds of Myanmar plants. Interesting for guests of Yangon will be Kandogi Gardens with a lake, in the center of which is built a ship in the form of a mythical bird. On its decks there are restaurants and halls for all kinds of ceremonies.
There is in Yangon a functioning synagogue Musmeah Yeshua. It was founded during the time of Burma’s colonial dependence. But many Jewish families left the country long ago, and the synagogue serves representatives of embassies and foreigners.
Where to stay for tourists?
The city has a very large number of all kinds of accommodation for tourists, ranging from hostels and guesthouses, ending with five-star hotels. Pricing policy also has a run up and depends on the place of settlement: from 588 to 14 700 rubles. (from 10 to 250 dollars) for one day. The best option for tourists is the rooms with amenities in the guesthouses in the neighborhoods adjacent to the Sule Pagoda, at a price of 1470 rubles. (25 dollars). There are many convenience stores and food outlets in Downtown. Since this is the center of the city, it is well provided with public transport, which is important for the movement of tourists around the city.
How to get to Yangon?
The easiest way, for example, is to fly by plane. Yangon Airport is located 15 kilometers from the city. There are no direct flights from Moscow. Flights with transfers to Delhi, Abu Dhabi, Bangkok are expensive. But in the low season (from May to December) you can find airlines that offer discounts on flights. In any case, if there is a goal - to visit Myanmar and its largest city, Yangon, it means that everything else will work out.