What is facial expression? Meaning of the word
What is facial expression? Everyone knows the general meaning of this word, but not everyone owns the full information. Small children begin to understand the meaning of facial expression at the age of less than a year, long before they begin to speak. They very clearly react to the emotional state of a person by his face, look.
Mimicry, it is the expression of the face, is the movement of the facial muscles under the influence of the emotional state of a person. What is the primary meaning of the word "mimicry"? He is of Greek descent, from a root meaning "imitation." Most of the people in conversation concentrates attention on the face of the interlocutor.
Mimic analysis is carried out:
- In arbitrary and involuntary aspects.
- According to physiological aspects, such as tone, strength, symmetry (or asymmetry).
- From sociocultural and psychological positions (the connection of expressions of persons with cultures, groups of various types).
In the aggregate, the information obtained by such an analysis characterizes a person, his gender and age, profession, ethnic and social parameters, emotional state during speech.Any complex of mimic movements is characteristic for some states and sets of individual parameters, and at the same time uncharacteristic for others. When analyzing a person's facial expressions, it is important to take into account its fundamental characteristics: harmony, dynamics, variability. This means that changing any of these parameters can fundamentally change the meaning of the whole mimic picture.
The harmony of facial expressions is verified by analyzing the conformity of the facial expression of different parts of the face. The incompatibility of mimic movements, for example, the upper and lower parts of it, may indicate that the subject does not speak sincerely or hides his present attitude towards others.
Facial expression is interconnected with other psychophysical aspects, for example with physiognomic parameters, peculiarities of a look. KS Stanislavsky characterized the latter as unmediated communication from soul to soul. Dynamic aspects of gaze (direction to the interlocutor or in the other direction, time of detention at the interlocutor of the sight, rate of change of the above aspects) contain information about the attitude to the interlocutor: "shooting eyes",“Make eyes”, “flirt with eyes”, “measure with eyes”, “look down”, “observe by eye corner”, “catch sight”, “call for eyes”, “see off with eyes”. People tend to identify eye movements with the moral and ethical features and character of a person (the fleeting gaze is a thief).
The value of eye contact
In contact with each other, people subconsciously choose different means of communication, facial expressions - one of them. In analyzing the relationship between interlocutors, not only the proportion of time of eye contact, but also its rupture and restoration, as well as specific moments when it takes place and when it does not, are of decisive importance.
On average, in normal relationships, eye contact lasts from 30 to 60% of the length of the conversation. With a positive relationship, the interlocutor prefers to maintain eye contact when he listens, rather than when he speaks. On the contrary, it occurs during aggressive communication, and the frequency and activity of the contact also increases. With a favorable relationship, people more often fix their gaze on the interlocutor with positive statements than with negative ones.
The opposite situation may indicate an attempt to dominate the interlocutor, aggressively take the situation into their own hands. The visual index of dominance (VIEW) is calculated using the formula “the frequency of eye contact during the hearing / frequency of eye contact during speech” and characterizes the interlocutor’s desire to fight for superiority in communication. The lower this parameter, the stronger the desire to dominate a person.
Frequently, the frequency of eye contact can characterize the inequality of interlocutors. It is considered that the interlocutor, whose status is higher, is less inclined to support visual contact. If there are several interlocutors and most often the views of the others are fixed on one of them, this characterizes his superior position. Visual contact is understood as the interpenetration of people into each other’s personal space. Avoiding contact is a departure from the interaction, the desire to free their personal space.
Does the control of facial expression
Analysis of the view in order to identify personal characteristics and interpersonal relationships of the subjects is characterized as the above-mentioned time parameters,and spatial, such as eye movement up, down, right, left; direction of gaze to the side or at the interlocutor, the intensity of visual contact psychophysical parameters. What is facial expression and can it be controlled? Of all the types of expression, it is the facial expression (facial expression) that is most controlled by the person.
Facial expressions - a means of non-verbal information leakage
The concept of “non-verbal information leakage” takes this into account and ranks the various elements of expression depending on the information content. Fundamental to this characteristic are three aspects:
- average transfer time;
- a variety of non-verbal complexes of reactions characteristic of the corresponding part of the body;
- opportunity for the other person to observe them.
The human face takes the first place in these parameters, moreover - what is mimicry, one can say, having studied the peculiarities of the manifestation of emotions on the face. For this reason, many people, controlling facial expressions, pay less attention to controlling other aspects of expression, which makes it more difficult to analyze facial expressions. However, there are quite frequent involuntary reactions.Thus, people with an insincere description of an event, fact or person tend to smile less often, and nervous people, conveying inappropriate information to reality, try to look very calm.
Eyes do not cheat
It is difficult to analyze and manage your own eye reactions to the emotional state, and this allows us to rightly call the eyes a real mirror in which the soul is reflected. But in some cases, the development of facial expressions occurs over time.
Well-managed facial muscles may not move at all, and the eyes will most likely provide the necessary information. A look characterizes both a person’s state — he is frightened, joyful, sad, and his attitude toward people and situations — can be dissatisfied, expressing respect or contempt.
The value of facial expressions
Characteristic features of a particular person, facial expressions and gaze may also indicate personality characteristics. For example, a glance with a half-eyed face in combination with an incredulous expression of the face may indicate an appropriate attitude towards people in general, a constant fear of being mistaken or being deceived.A person during intercourse in any case attracts attention to himself, because it can tell both about the above-mentioned aspects, and whether the interlocutor understood us, whether he wants to continue the conversation, and about many other things. The value of facial expressions in communication is difficult to overestimate. Below are the characteristics of the most frequently and obviously expressed by facial expressions of emotions and states.
Facial expressions as a means of expressing emotions
- Surprise - immediate reaction to a new or unexpected event. Most often, eyebrows rise, resulting in wrinkles on the forehead. Eyes wide open, but not tense. Often opens the mouth.
- Fear is the fear of the possibility of an adverse, traumatic event. Eyebrows in this state can also be raised, but not as in the previous case. They are more stretched to the sides than up, as the eyes are opened more widely and intensely. The forehead also shrinks. Mouth stretched with tension.
- Anger. The manifestation of a threat or intent to cause damage. Since this condition increases blood pressure, the face turns red, veins can swell. Breathing quickens. The face as a whole is tense.Eyebrows converge at the nose, forming a corner as if pointing down. Lips tense, may even be grinned. Often ajar so that the teeth are visible.
- Disgust - a reaction to any form of contact with an object that causes emotional rejection. Eyebrows go down without wrinkling the forehead. Eyes are already, as they hide behind for centuries. The mouth can open slightly, its corners are directed up or down, sometimes the mouth opens a little, lips tense. Wrinkles in this condition may occur on the nose.
- Joy. Occurs when raising the mood. When combined with surprise, joy can be crowded out last in the sense of a display on the face. Often used to mask other emotions, even rage and fear. However, it is possible to recognize the true emotional state by voice, breath, gestures and other parameters. Joy almost does not cause tension of the muscles of the face. Eyebrow involvement in the reaction is minimal. Eyes narrowed slightly, can "shine". On the lips there is a characteristic semi-smile. The expression as a whole is pleasing to the other person.
- Sadness is a reaction to grief, loss. As a rule, it appears briefly, after which it is replaced by the usual expression of a person’s face. Eyebrows are lowered, especially their outer sides.The forehead shrinks vertically, forming corresponding wrinkles in the middle. Eyes half closed, the corners of the lips a little lowered.
It is necessary to understand that a look is an element of non-verbal communication without words. Mimicry is able to more accurately convey the state of a person, rather than voice and words. With an excessively close and frequent gaze between the interlocutors, tension can arise. However, in contact with friendly people, it is necessary to maintain periodic eye contact, since its absence can be interpreted as alienation and avoidance of communication.
The very expression of all these emotions on the face of a person gives an answer to the question of what is facial expression.