What is a dialect? Examples of words
What is a dialect, or rather what exactly can be attributed to dialects, and what to dialects or adverbs - still causes controversy among modern linguists and small, but very proud peoples. There are both territorial dialects and social.
The main thing
So what is a dialect? The dictionary-reference of linguistic terms says this:
Variety of the common language
For modern researchers, the main importance and value of studying dialects is that such specific features of the language directly reflect the culture of a certain social or territorial group. At the same time, in the conditions of an open and accessible society, supported by the development of the Internet, in most cities and countries, dialects and local dialects erode over time, new words and expressions appear and old ones slowly disappear.
Dialects emphasize the diversity of the language and its cultural significance, allow to go beyond the accepted norms.In Russia, a huge number of peoples, and hence the dialects. But such a linguistic phenomenon appears not only in individual nations, but even simply in individual cities and villages. The formation of language features is influenced by historical and territorial factors. Compile entire collections of words and expressions, dictionaries for dialects, such that they are not inferior in importance to ordinary explanatory ones.
Social dialects with examples
In addition to separation according to a territorial basis, social dialects are also distinguished. They include slang and argot. That is, this is all that belongs to separate linguistic dialectal subgroups: adolescent, computer, criminal, game, army slang, network jargon, automotive, and so on. Getting from one group of communication to another, not previously familiar with another format of communication, a person can fall into a stupor, not understanding what is at stake.
Basically, the social dialect unites groups of people with certain hobbies and hobbies, age characteristics or a forced communication environment. Not only words in a dialect, but also whole expressions can be manifestations.What is a dialect in the social sphere, well-known linguist Vinogradov described in his works.
Social dialects, examples:
- "Yes, you persecute" (lie, cheat).
- "Throw the lasso" (arrest).
- "Collect loot" (collect the dropped items in the game).
- "Let's go balabashit" (go eat).
Speech in the professional field
Professional jargon is different from the social and also belongs to the dialect. Vivid examples of professional dialect can be called legal, medical, marine.
He combines a group of people of the same or related professions who are able to understand each other in working terms, even working in different companies or places. For example, ordinary people understand a nut as a fruit with an edible core, but electricians will immediately think that this is an electrical clamp. Or "Southern Aurora", few people will understand that this is the southern aurora, and sailors across Russia immediately understand where their legs grow from.
The most famous dialects are territorial. If you ask any student what a dialect is, then he will remember exactly about them, and maybe even give an example. In fact, all of us are well aware of dialects and adverbs of this type; there are phrases of this kind in almost every city.Otherwise, they can still be called regionalism, but the meaning remains the same.
For example, in Siberia, the extension to the buildings is called the word “extension”, and the usual file for storing sheets of paper is called “multiforum”. “Kulema” is a person who is definitely not in a hurry, slow and imposing, and “buns” are called buns. The door here can be "closed" and not closed, and the walk to go to the "obuchki", as Siberians call shoes.
In the Far East, which borders on Asian countries, it would be normal to offer the company to go to Chifan, a small Chinese restaurant with food. Life on the coast also makes itself felt, lovers of freebie freebies here are called "seagulls", and the embankment is briefly called "nabka".
As for the southern peoples, in the Krasnodar Territory, for example, it is customary to call apricots "pots", and the pumpkin "garbuz". Kuban styled gait "shkandybyu" socks "boots". Well, and if suddenly someone bothers stupid chatter, then in his address it will be unpleasant to hear "you already broke my head."
The pronounced difference in the use of dialectal words on the example of two capitals
Central and North-Western regions differ in the number of inhabitants, greater mobility.Thus, the fact that there is a huge amount of conversational differences in the speech of residents of Moscow and St. Petersburg is surprising.
When the “entrance” is an action for Petersburgers, the word “front” causes a smile to Muscovites. There is chicken in Moscow, and chicken in Petersburg, a curb in the metropolitan region, and a curb in the north-west. If in St. Petersburg they eat “shaverma” in badlon, then in Moscow they get along with “shawarma” dressed in turtlenecks.
The “side road” in Moscow is a St. Petersburg “pocket”, and if you have to use public transport, then you need to buy a Moscow “travel card”, and in St. Petersburg a “card”, after which you can take a ride through Petersburg “viaducts” and “overpasses” Moscow “Irga” in St. Petersburg is called “karinka”, and “bread” in the “tent” is called “roll” from the “stall”. Moscow will be called “similarity-disorder” by the Moscow motorists from St. Petersburg. The “sugar tube” in Moscow is called the “waffle cone”, and the “ladle” is more often used here as the “ladle”. “Shpana” in Moscow fastens its jackets with a “zipper”, and “Gopniki” in St. Petersburg use a “snake”.
As can be seen from the examples, by individual words from the pronounced dialect, one can see the cultural and historical features of the regions, which certainly makes the dialect a valuable linguistic manifestation.According to him, as in an open book, you can read and learn new information about the surrounding social environment in society.
So what is a dialect? These are types of generally accepted linguistic norms, differences traced among a whole group of people, in cities or professions. A separate speech of an individual cannot be called a dialect, it is already an idiolect. A dialect is distinguished by the use of words and expressions by a large number of people.
The use of dialect words and expressions in other regions can confound others and cause confusion. It is necessary to carefully use dubious words in speech.