Waterproofing and warming of the foundation: materials and technologies
The fact that without the construction of a reliable lastingfoundation to build a solid house and a strong one is impossible, everyone knows. But it is known only to the engineers how to properly make a base for their home, so that it can then be lifted several floors of the building. But the foundation is the foundation of the construction when erecting any structure. It is on him that the most important function is entrusted - to transfer the ground statistical load associated with the pressure exerted on the basis of construction. That's why this part of the house is so important.
In addition, the foundation passes to the ground and otherdynamic loads that arise under the influence of numerous factors, for example, wind, groundwater, a moving vehicle, and others. And if the foundation of the structure is erected in compliance with all the requirements put forward, then the destruction or deformation of the building is excluded.
To have a house in the long term wasreliable and solid foundation, it is not enough just to correctly design and calculate it. A mandatory set of measures is required to protect against external factors that have a destructive effect on the main load-bearing structures of the building. The main ones are groundwater and atmospheric water, as well as temperature differences. That's why waterproofing and warming of the foundation are always relevant.
The concrete, which is part of the monolithic base,has an unpleasant characteristic: from falling on its surface of moisture, it plays the role of a sponge, begins to absorb significant amounts of water. Therefore, in order to preserve the frame from the reinforcement, as well as to maintain the parameters of the optimal microclimate in the basement and basement floors, the basement is waterproofed. SNiP, regulating this process, presupposes a certain procedure for its conduct. It is not necessary to say that this process is compulsory.
With regard to insulation, then with its help you can notOnly to protect the building from sudden temperature changes, but also to get an opportunity for a longer period of keeping heat inside it. In turn, waterproofing the foundation (SNiP 2.02.01-83) with the use of special materials and compounds makes it possible to protect it from the harmful effects of moisture.
On how much quality will be madewaterproofing and warming of the foundation, first of all the reliability of the entire structure depends. Therefore, especially stringent requirements are imposed on this work in the construction industry. All proper work must be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the SNiP, which is a system of all normative documents and norms related to construction. They prescribe the mandatory conduct of insulation and waterproofing works in those cases where groundwater or sewage, as well as "some other liquids" can have an effect with a high or medium intensity.
But even in the absence of this external factor, the waterproofing and warming of the foundation will by no means become an excessive measure.
To date, there are severaldemanded building materials, with the help of which insulation and waterproofing of the foundation and blind area are carried out. In particular, the protection against moisture is most often carried out by a peccon, linocrom, or penoplex. Let's consider each of them separately. Materials with a penetron are the most popular insulation today. This component increases the waterproofness of concrete, creating a grid of crystals in the cracks and pores. Penetron so strongly compacts concrete that water does not have a chance to penetrate inside. In those places where the waterproofing of the foundation with roll materials is actual, a linden having a multilayered structure is most often used. It, being weldable, has a number of advantages: high moisture, biostability and resistance to decay.
Material such as foam is also oftenwaterproofing the foundation with insulation. The technology of its application is quite simple. In addition, this material not only insulates and insulates the base, with it the owner of the house completely forgets about mold and fungus. Many people are often interested in whether a waterproofing is necessary when the basement is insulated with foam. Experts believe that it is not needed, since this material performs both functions well. Another bitumen roll material - bikrost - was created specifically for insulation of the base. It is quite high-quality and economical.
Based on the climatic features of the specificlocality, the method is chosen. There are several technologies of waterproofing: horizontal, provided for the strip foundation, cement, lubricating, cold method and liquid rubber method. They differ not only in the material used, but also in the complexity of the work.
If the private house does not provide a basementrooms, then this method is most often used. In this case, waterproofing the foundation with roll materials. In addition, this method is considered quite economical. Masters should carefully think through each step to avoid mistakes, since they will not be able to correct them in the future. Around the structure, just above the blind, is applied such material that does not rot. You can smear with the use of rubber, bitumen or cement. For stability, the foundation is waterproofed with roll materials. This can be rubitex or roofing material, glass insulation or pro-feed, hydroglass and other self-adhesive hydroprotective materials.
Protection of the tape foundation
Warming and waterproofing of the foundation of privateAt home with the presence of the basement is somewhat different from the previous method. Depending on the material capabilities of the owners, different materials are used. Most often, complex waterproofing and insulation of the strip foundation, providing full protection of the structure. Initially, the surface of the excavation is treated with two or three layers of clay: this serves as a barrier against the penetration of liquid. Then a ruberoid or film is placed under the base of the foundation. The first building material is applied in two layers and is smeared with bituminous mastic. Both insulation film and roofing felt must be laid tightly and overlapping, carefully avoiding the leaving of cracks.
The next stage is brick laying or additionheat-insulating material. Some also make plastering. It is also desirable to drain to remove moisture from the building so that the water in the base does not stagnate, but easily along the groove would drain into a special drainage well. Internal and external processing of foundation walls can be carried out with the same materials.
This option is suitable for a monolithic base. In this case, the waterproofing and warming of the foundation do not require the seams to be sealed, since only the coating that creates the protective film is done. Waterproofing can be carried out in one or more layers both from the outside and from the inside of the building. For this purpose, solutions made on bitumen-rubber and bitumen-polymer bases are used. The most advantageous option is the use of hot bitumen. To warm it up, you will need special equipment. Bitumen mastic will heat up and become liquid, so it can work with it even at subzero temperatures. For the safety of the residents, the material made on the basis of organic solvents is not used in the internal premises. In this case, it is better to take the mastic on a water basis.
It is one of the universal options andIt is used for both internal and external finishing. Cement waterproofing is ideal for foundations of buildings with high humidity, for example, for baths or laundries. On sale there are ready-made mixtures of two different formulations. Some consist of sand, cement and various additives. Others are made of more elastic components, in particular, polymers.
Self-contained waterproofing and warming of the foundation
With my own hands to make this work quite underforce to someone who understands anything in construction. To work correctly and reliably, a beginner should follow a certain sequence of actions. To begin with, prepare the surface of the foundation, clean it of dust and dirt, removing anything that might prevent the bonding of the insulating material to the base. In the process, sharp elements are also eliminated. Then the surface is treated with a primer solution. After it has dried, the main insulating component is applied. If we are talking about the use of a deposit material, for example, a linocrome, then in this case the lower part of the rolled roll is heated with the help of a torch, while simultaneously heating the foundation. The insulator, slowly rolling out, is pressed against the surface.
This factor should also be given careful considerationAttention. After all, the insulation has two main goals: to minimize the body loss, especially in winter, and to prevent the destruction of the foundation due to the freezing of soil around it. Thanks to it, the microclimate inside the house improves and its ideal state remains for a long time.
The most common mistakes
The first is the wrong choice of material. Many incorrectly believe that any insulator can be used simultaneously on the internal and external surfaces of the house, including those located under the ground. For example, the use of roofing material to protect the foundation leads to sad consequences. First, the waterproofing for the roof has a lower strength factor, besides it is not designed for tension and must be fixed along the length with a certain margin. Because of this, from seasonal temperature fluctuations, when the soil becomes mobile, numerous mechanical damages occur in such a material.
Many experts today opposeuse for waterproofing and warming the foundation of roofing material or bitumen mastic. In some ways, they are right, because these two materials have the property of strongly drying out after five years of use, and after ten or more years they can begin to flow moisture.