The infinitive is the initial meaning of the verb. The peculiarity of the infinitive is that it means only a pure action that is not tied to the person who performs it, does not indicate, one or several persons perform the action, and also does not give an idea about the time of the action. That is, the infinitive has no certainty of the past, present, or future tense.
This part of speech is also called the "indefinite form of the verb", because it does not characterize any details of the action performed, revealing only its original meaning. Latin wordinfintusfrom which this term originated can be translated as"uncertain".
Uncertain form of the verb: rules and examples
An infinitive can only answer questions:
- "What to do?";
- "What to do?".
It is impossible, for example, to ask“What are you doing?”"What is he doing?",“What are we doing?”,“What are they doing?”"What you are doing?",“What did you do?”,"What will you do?"as the infinitive is an indefinite form of the verb.Time and face are unclear, and there is no reference to the details of what is happening.
An infinitive ends with word-forming suffixes:
- - to give birth, grow up, die;
- -h, - protect, burn, whip;
- -ti - carry, grow, row.
It can also be complemented by postfix.to, by which we can judge which indefinite form of the verb is irrevocable and which is reflexive:
- to be - toil, pray, beware.
Signs of the infinitive
An infinitive is a form of a verb that always remains the same. It cannot be conjugated, presented in another time or face. Infinitives can only have constant verb signs that are present in any verbs, regardless of their form. Such signs include transitivity / immobility, reflexivity / irretrievability and perfection / imperfection.
Transitional and intransitive infinitives
The transitivity of a verb is determined in accordance with the presence of an additional word of an indefinite form of a verb denoting an object or a phenomenon to which the action is partially transferred. Intransitive verbs consist of a single word that directly refers to an action. As part of the transitional infinitive can be:
- nouns or pronouns put in the accusative case, not having a preposition:inject, thread;
- genitive nouns that have no preposition, which express a proportion of something, or involvement:wait for trouble, pour water;
- nouns or pronouns put in the genitive case, if the verb has a negative expression:be unable to ignore them.
Thus, these words are part of the verb, filling it with meaning, and without them the essence of the action is lost. Part of the action, in turn, goes on the subject or circumstance, giving it a specific semantic load.
Returnable and non-returnable infinitives
The indefinite form of the verb can also be reflexive and irrevocable. Non-reflexive verbs express an action committed by someone or something in relation to someone and something. Returnables express an action directed by someone or something at itself, or mean another other closed interaction or state of the object and have a postfix at the endss. On-sieusually finishes return indefinite form of the verb.The rule states that reflexive verbs cannot be transitive.
Examples of non-returnable infinitives:put on. Examples of recurring infinitives:dress, crouch.
As we can see from the above examples, some reflexive verbs can be obtained from the non-reflexive by simply adding postfix-sie(as in the case of a couple "lower-lower). From this only the direction of action changes, but the general meaning remains. In rare cases, according to the rules and norms of the use of verbs, it is impossible to use the verb in both its word forms - perfect and imperfect, as, for example, is not allowed to "put on" a reflexive form of the verb (example "put on). “Put on” refers to an action performed on an object or person, while “dressing” can be addressed exclusively to the object performing the action (it can be used in other word forms, provided that this return value is maintained) . Despite the fact that such an indefinite form of the verb, limited in use, is rarely encountered, the rule remains the rule.Also, from some imperfect forms of verbs, we will not be able to make perfect, based on their key meaning, which we can see in the example of the verb "to peep" - it is impossiblepryfor yourself. By the same principle in the Russian language there is no imperfect form of the verb "to sneak" - it is impossible "steal"anything.
Infinitives of perfect and imperfect form
Infinitives can also be perfect and imperfect. The indefinite imperfective form of the verb expresses actions that last in time and do not have a specific linkage - these are, as it were, eternal actions, and without additional instructions in the context it does not give us an idea of the completion or incompleteness of the action. A question will be relevant here."What to do?". Examples:
- I will enroll in the magistracy.
- I decided not to enter the magistracy.
- How do I decide - to enter the magistracy, or not?
Infinitives of the perfect form say that the action has already been done, or will be surely done, that the result is already there, or there will be more (of course, in cases of denial or question, it may have a relatively indefinite coloration).A question will be relevant here."What to do?". Examples:
- After reading the note should be burned.
- Thank me for not having to burn this note.
- Have you been instructed to burn the note?
Only a small number of dual infinitives contains Russian. The indefinite form of the verb, related both to the perfect form and the imperfect, can be used this way and that, depending on the environment, without changing its word form. That is, she answers the question"What to do?"and to the question"What to do?". Examples:
- It was ordered to continue to execute all traitors. - "What to do?";
- Received an order to execute the traitor. - "What to do?";
- In the village used to marry the girls quickly. - "What to do?";
- By the fall, Martha managed to marry all her girls. - "What to do?";
- It's hard to tell your heart. - "What to do?"
- How to tell your heart not to love? - "What to do?"
- Explore the caves - it is very interesting, but at the same time, dangerous. - "What to do?"
- Tomorrow we have to explore these caves. - "What to do?"
- You can attack them from any side, while I smash them in the forehead. - "What to do?"
- You will have to attack them on the right, and I will come from the flank. - "What to do?"
Conjugation of verbs
The conjugation of verbs reflects their change according to the person and the number. Although infinitives themselves cannot have faces, numbers, or gender, and therefore cannot conjugate, they nevertheless serve as a derivational basis for other verbs, therefore they are referred to one of the two verb groups by conjugation type - or I or co. II. Endings of indefinite verbs belonging to the first group:th(except for the verb exceptions). The forms of these verbs have endings-y and -y, -yo, and -yo, -et and -yo, -y and -y, -e and -yo. Endings of indefinite verbs belonging to the second group:-andand on-I(except for the verb exceptions). When conjugating the forms of these verbs have endings-y and -y, -you, -it, -im, -ite, -at and -at.
Infinitive function in a sentence
Verbs, as usual, perform in the sentence the function of the predicate. Together with the subject they constitute the grammatical basis of the sentences. However, the infinitive, due to its peculiarities of use, can perform completely different functions in a sentence.Therefore, the role of any of the clauses in this case can be performed by an indefinite form of the verb. An example of using infinitives as different members of a sentence:
- To experience pain is to be conscious."To experience pain" is a subject, also the infinitive is included here in the compound verb predicate.
- He had an irresistible craving to turn around.“Turning around” here appears as a definition, because we can ask the question “What kind of traction?”).
- Nevertheless, he decided to furnish everything in his own way.“Furnish” here is a supplement, since we ask the question “Did you decide what?”.
- They stopped at night to take a breath before a long and exhausting climb."Break" in this case is the circumstance of the goal, because we can ask, "Why did you stop, for what purpose?".
Morphological analysis of the infinitive in the sentence
In order to carry out morphological analysis of a verb in a sentence, it is necessary to determine its part of speech, its general grammatical meaning, ask it questions, define a word form, indicate permanent and non-permanent morphological features, as well as its function in the sentence.Since the indefinite form of the verb does not change, the morphological analysis of the infinitive is carried out without specifying non-permanent verb signs.