Types of pasta in Italian cuisine
associated with any person with a dish that Italians call pasta. Despite the fact that they have over 300 recipes of this dish, there are still disputes over who was the discoverer of the culinary masterpiece: China or Italy. There is a legend that the famous traveler Marco Polo in the 13th century brought a recipe for a unique noodle dish from China. Generally, about pasta can talk, perhaps, infinitely. We will take a culinary journey through the types of pastes. But at the same time we learn how they differ from each other.
Types of Italian pasta by cooking method
You can divide the paste into 3 groups according to the method of their preparation:
- Dry pasta.
- Fresh pasta.
- Complete (or stuffed) pasta.
For the preparation of dry pasta using durum wheat flour and water. Accordingly, we get a product that will serve as the main ingredient in the preparation of dishes. The resulting dough is dried in a certain way, and it can be stored for a long time. Varieties of such a product set.For example, in the Russian way - it is the horns, butterflies, noodles, and more.
Fresh pasta is different from dry pasta because, in addition to flour and water, a chicken egg is added to the future. And this dough is either boiled immediately or frozen. The drying process is not provided. It has a more delicate flavor than dry paste.
Full, or filled pasta - is one of the types of pasta, intended for the preparation of dishes with filling. For example, ravioli, lasagna, anolotti, tortelloni and others. The analogue in Russian cooking are dumplings and dumplings. But with the difference that finished products are added to this paste, and not raw.
Variety of shapes and sizes of pasta
In Italy, the types of pastes are so diverse that it is time to get confused. Here is such an assortment as nowhere else. What is remarkable: each region is characterized by its own shapes and sizes of pastes, which were once invented by the culinary mind of a person.
So, what kinds of pastes exist if you classify a product by shape and length? It:
- The long paste is round, in length from 15 to 30 centimeters, in diameter not more than 1.8 mm. These include: vermicelli, kapellini, spaghetti, bukatini, fettucine, lasagnets, papardelle, lingini.
- Short paste in the form of tubules, length from 1 to 4 centimeters: penne, cannelloni, fusilli, chelentani.
- Small pasta: Stelline, Anelli, Risoni, Quadretti, Ditalini.
- Figured paste: konkile, kazerechche, campanella, farfalle, fiori, rotini.
- Started pasta: conquilioni, lasagna, ravioli, tortelloni.
As can be seen from the list, the range is really wide. And remember them all, perhaps, will not succeed. Only if you are not Italian. Let's get to know the most popular types of pastes used in Europe.
Spaghetti - Pasta Classic
There is no such restaurant where a dish called "Carbonara" would not be served. Dry Spaghetti Pasta is used for its preparation. Cream sauce has the same name. And as an additional ingredient are juicy pieces of bacon.
Spaghetti is the unspoken symbol of Italy. The first mention of them falls on the year 1819, in translation it means "twine" or "twine". A variety of dishes are prepared from this type of pasta, and its list is headed by Carbonara pasta.
This is a classic type of pasta in the form of long thin, but wide strips. They look similar to fettuccine and flattened spaghetti.Unlike other pasta representatives, linguine is made not only from white flour, but also from wholegrain. This pasta is usually served with classic pesto and seafood.
Very many types of pasta Italian cuisine have two names. Quatappy is no exception. His middle name is chelentani. In appearance, this pasta resembles a spiral or corkscrew. Where did the first name of the paste. The main feature is the high ability to hold the sauce on the surface of the paste. For this reason, chelentani is more often used in cold appetizers, salads, and it can also withstand the load of dense sauce in a dish.
It means "pierced" or "full of holes." The name comes from its appearance: it is a round paste that resembles a pipe. The second name of these pasta - glovetelli. Their length reaches up to 30 centimeters. Cooking time no more than 9-11 minutes. Bukatini can be served with oily sauces, in addition to fish, meat or vegetables. This type of pasta (pictured below) goes well with tomato sauce.
This is a popular form of pasta in Italy.This type of pasta (type of pasta, as the Italians would say) is called "feathers." External similarity with the pen due to oblique cuts on the diagonal and ribbed surface. Products vary in length and ribbing (or its absence). The primary goal of creating this paste was to create a "base" for the paste.
For this reason, the penne is perfectly combined with absolutely any sauces and products. Most often sauces: fish, meat, tomato, cream, cheese. Classic penne in a Boscaiola dish with dried porcini mushrooms and ham.
Translated from Italian, "Kaneloni" means "big reed". In practice, it is a large "pipe", which is filled with filling and poured over the sauce. It turns out a casserole in miniature. The stuffing most often used is ground beef with bechamel sauce, finely chopped beef and spinach in tomato sauce. The recipe can be different - it is at the discretion of the chef.
Very unusual form of pasta. It resembles a grille, from which it took its name. This pasta was born in Tuscany. Due to its bizarre form, it has the best characteristics in terms of sticking sauce. Thick sauces as well as possible reveal their taste on the radiator.It can be found not only in pasta dishes, but also in soups, as well as casseroles and salads, in cold appetizers. After trying once, you will never forget its dense and such Italian taste.
This is another type of Italian pasta that is a success with gourmets. Square pieces, compressed in the middle, and with numerous pointed triangles along the edges. Appearance resembles a "butterfly", from which pasta got its name. For the first time about Farfel started talking at the beginning of the XVI century. But to this day, the love for her does not fade away with fans of Italian cuisine.
It goes well with all sauces, but most often in the menu of European restaurants you will find a composition of tomato or cream sauce. Nowadays, colored farfale, incorporating spinach or tomato, giving characteristic tones, is very popular. When you combine 3 colors (along with the classic pale-wheat) you get a dish that resembles the flag of Italy.
For a Russian person, ravioli are dumplings or dumplings, depending on the filling. But Italian "dumplings" always have a square shape in its classic interpretation. But there are also rounded and semicircular shapes.Filling in different regions of Italy is different. There is no gold standard here. For example, the Romans prefer ravioli with ricotta, spinach, nutmeg and black pepper. And Sardinians love to stuff them with ricotta and lemon zest.
Pasta Sauce as a Soul Dish
Italians are of the opinion that sauce in any pasta plays a key role. And they call it the "soul" of the dish. High-quality execution of the sauce and the right kind of pasta - this is the key to the success of any culinary masterpiece of Italian cuisine!
Since ancient times, olive oil mixed with finely chopped garlic has been considered the most basic sauce for pasta. This dressing goes well with fish, meat, eggs, cheese, greens and vegetables today. Classic pesto sauce is based on this basic combination of ingredients.
Now many catering establishments offer visitors an independent choice of dry pasta and sauce. Forgetting that a person who is not familiar with the basics of the type of pasta in Italy and with sauces can get something rather unintelligible instead of the expected tasty dish. For an easier understanding of the example: smooth pasta can not "hold" onits surface is meat and tomato sauces. Accordingly, when eating the most delicious will remain at the bottom of the plate. Italians consider this culinary barbarism.
Long pasta is especially good with cream sauces as more tender foods. And short ones are perfectly combined with pieces of meat, poultry, seafood, fish and vegetables. They have better tenacity.
Cooking in Italian
If you want to cook real Italian pasta at home, you must follow certain rules of its preparation. The first thing you need to know is the degree of boiling pasta: they should not be completely boiled. It is better to undercook than to digest. There is such a thing as "al dente", which literally means "to the tooth", that is, the product should be slightly under prepared, crunch. This is due to the fact that even when the heat supply is cut off, it continues to “boil down” due to the heat that communicates from the outer shell - from its inner part.
Such paste will be elastic and slightly springy. It is up to such a state to bring it.
We proceed to the direct preparation of dishes. Take the Carbonara paste as an example.
For every 100 grams of pasta you need to prepare 1 liter of water and 1 tablespoon of salt. When the water starts to boil, put pasta in a saucepan with water. It is necessary to do this while stirring so that it does not stick together. Some housewives add sunflower oil or olive oil to the water so that the pasta does not stick together. They really do not stick together, but the sauce will be very bad "fall" on them. Therefore, this trick with oil is omitted at this stage.
Depending on the thickness of the dry paste, the cooking time takes from 6 to 15 minutes, for a fresh paste this value is about 3-4 minutes. In our case, al dente needs 10 minutes or 12 minutes for full readiness. With regards to the sauce, the rule here is the following: the thicker the pasta, the thicker the sauce.
Put the sliced bacon on the preheated pan, and while it is heated, we are engaged in the sauce. That is, everything must be done at the same time. To prepare the sauce, you need to take: 3 eggs (per 500 grams of pasta), grated cheese (25% pecorino, 75% parmesan), ground black pepper.
When the pasta has reached the desired state, we turn them over into a colander. And then send to the bacon and mix with the sauce. Under the influence of heat from the pasta sauce "reaches" the desired consistency.
Your Italian pasta "Carbonara" is ready, enjoy a simple, but incredibly delicious dish.
Today we managed to get a little closer acquainted with the cooking of Italy. Types of pasta (with photos!) We tried to consider as much as possible in detail. But even though a large number of them were mentioned in the article, it’s simply impossible to describe everything in one review. After all, even one species has its own subspecies. And in different regions of Italy, unique forms of pastes and recipes for such dishes are presented that cannot be found anywhere else.
On the question of how many kinds of pastes there are in general, it is easy to answer. There are over 300 of them. But it’s unlikely to be remembered. Likely to try. But if you can still do it, then you can consider yourself a real guru of Italian culinary art.