State Duma - what is it? Definitions, formation, powers and functions
The State Duma is a legislative body, one of the two chambers of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. The procedure for elections to it is established by federal law. And what is the State Duma? This you learn from the article. So, let's begin.
This is a legislative body that everyone used to call abbreviated. Its full name is the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation.
The work of this body is regulated by the Constitution of our country and federal laws. According to these documents, the Duma may adopt the following resolutions:
- On approval of the bill.
- That the president agrees to the selection and appointment of the Prime Minister.
- On dismissal or appointment of the Chairman of the Accounts Chamber, as well as half of the auditors authorized by human rights and the Central Bank
- About trust or distrust to the Government of our country.
- About the declaration of amnesty.
- About the charges against the president of our country.
- Concerning the parliamentary request.
- About the direction of representatives of the State Duma to the Constitutional Court.
But the Duma does not make the decision itself. She has assistants with a large number of institutions, which provide invaluable assistance.
How laws are considered
Since the State Duma is a legislative body of power, it is logical to assume that laws are also passed by it. Who makes proposals for the adoption of laws? In the Duma, these may be deputies or members of the Federation Council. Laws can be sent to the President of the country, the Supreme or Arbitration Court, the Commission of the State Duma and its committees.
All submitted proposals and bills are considered by the State Duma. It also explains the fact that they process and accept documents all differently.
It is important to know that an ordinary person cannot directly submit a law to the Duma for consideration. But through an intermediary to do it quite real. The mediator is a deputy who is assigned to a particular territory of residence.An ordinary citizen should turn to the servant of the people who are in his area. If the problem is narrowly targeted, then you can seek help from the committee on this issue.
The State Duma of the Russian Federation has its own review procedure, however, like any state body. The draft resolution must be submitted with the text of the request, statement or appeal. He submitted to the Council, while having a three-day supply. If, for example, the document is in the Duma on Tuesday, then it will be considered only on Friday. During these three days, each State Duma deputy is obliged to familiarize himself with the document.
There are also many nuances that are based on the principle of separation of powers. For example, consideration and decision on candidates for the post of Prime Minister. At first the candidate is proposed by the president, after which the Duma already considers him from all sides. The State Duma has the right to reject the candidature, but the rejection cannot be indefinite, therefore there is a limit of refusals. If the candidature is not agreed, the president has the right to make a decision himself.Most likely, such a decision will be followed by the dissolution of the Duma and new elections.
Work of the Duma
The State Duma of the Russian Federation has limited functions and powers. But this is offset by the fact that the legislature has a great influence on the executive. For example, the State Duma has the right to express discontent with the government of the country. For this, one-fifth of the deputies, who will express a certain point of view, will suffice. After such a vote, discussion begins, during this period they are trying to find answers to all questions. This event takes place with the participation of the government chairman.
When all is over, the deputies begin to vote, the vote can be secret or open. If the majority voted for the decision, then a decision is made, which was discussed at the meeting. When the voting decision was approved, the next step is expected from the president. He needs to choose from two options - to abandon the decision of the Duma or dissolve the government. If the president decides to challenge the decision of the Duma, then the latter has three months to re-vote. In this case, the president is obliged to choose whom to dismiss - legislative or executive power.
Interaction between the President and the State Duma
The State Duma deputy has little powers, but for some reason, it seems to the majority that they are much wider with the president. This is not true. The president also has limitations in his actions. For example, in order to dismiss the Government, he must wait for the relevant decree from the State Duma - he cannot do it alone. The same goes for reports. The government of our country does not contact directly with the president, all reports are held before the State Duma.
From the outside it seems that this is a rather complicated way of power, but, in fact, it is the only true one. Otherwise, society will come to totalitarian power, and it is not known how this will end.
In addition, the State Duma is authorized to accelerate the resignation of the president.
One of the functions of the State Duma is to influence the management of the Central Bank. But it is the Central Bank that influences the financial situation in the country. The State Duma decides who will be the chairman and who will be on the board of directors.
Periodically, the State Duma conducts hearings during which the Central Bank reports on its actions. After this information is passed to the government and the president.
Since the Central Bank is independent, the procedure for appointing or dismissing a position is complicated.
Summarizing, we can say that the State Duma makes a decision on personnel appointments and controls the quality of the work performed. As soon as the State Duma decides that people cannot cope with their work, it immediately dismisses them.
Elections to the State Duma are held every five years. This process is governed by the Constitution of our country, and more precisely, the ninety-fifth and ninety-six articles. Elections are held on a mixed system and as a result of secret voting. In total, there are four hundred fifty deputies in the State Duma, two hundred and twenty-five of which are elected from single-member constituencies. The other half is elected in an electoral federal district. Elections to the State Duma are mandatory and do not have the right to cancel them.
In normal mode, the president announces elections in four or five months. If the State Duma was dissolved, then the head of the country on the same day sets the date for the elections to the Duma. When the president, for whatever reason, did not set the date for the elections, the Central Election Commission does this for him.
Who can be a deputy
A capable person who is already twenty-one years old can become a deputy. In addition, persons who are in places not so remote, can not claim to MP, even if all other requirements are met.
A candidate for deputy can self-nominate, with the help of voters of a district or on behalf of electoral blocs and associations. Federal lists of candidates nominate only electoral blocs and electoral associations. Candidates do not have the right to use their official or official position, since during elections everyone should have equal rights.
You can run as a candidate in only one federal list and one electoral district. To register a voter from a single-member constituency, you must have at least a percentage of signatures from the entire constituency. If we are talking about a federal list of candidates, then there must be at least two hundred thousand signatures. It is important that for a federal list a candidate should not have more than fourteen thousand signatures from one subject of our country. Instead of a certain number of signatures, you can make an electoral deposit.
Before registering, the candidate must provide information about their property and income. If all requirements are met, the CEC decides that the candidate must be registered in the federal list of candidates.
Registered candidates have equal rights and duties and conduct election campaigning on the same basis. Funds from the federal budget are allocated for holding and preparing elections. Any candidates, electoral blocs or associations should create electoral funds in order for them to fund an electoral campaign.
If a federal law is violated substantially, the Central Election Commission may not accept a candidate or cancel a previously registered registration. During the voting, the candidate has two ballots, one of them in the federal district, and the other on the single-mandate list.
Deputies of the State Duma of the Russian Federation are not considered to be elected if, in the single-mandate constituency, the most voters voted against all. And in the federal, when none of the candidates won five percent of the vote.If all voter lists do not receive fifty percent, then the elections are also considered to be invalid. The Central Election Commission establishes the election results no later than two weeks from the moment of voting.
When elections are declared invalid, their results are annulled and repeated elections are held. But the repeated procedure is not carried out if the deputy cannot be elected for more than a year until the end of the powers of the State Duma of the Russian Federation.
Another function of the State Duma. It adopts not only legislation that determines elections, but also forms the Central Election Commission. The commission should have fifteen members and five of them are representatives of the State Duma. The next five are determined by the Federal Council, and the last five - by the president himself.
Thus, the election procedure is monitored by all branches of government at once, and they also prevent fraud on the part of politicians who do not disdain.
Interaction with other authorities
The Council of Federation of the State Duma is the upper chamber of the Federal Assembly. The activities of the Federal Council have certain features.It is very different from the activities of the State Duma. But their interaction leads to fruitful results.
So, we present to you below the functions of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly:
- The State Duma resolves issues related to the credibility of the executive body.
- Gives a refusal or consent to the appointment of a person to the post of the Government Chairman of our country.
- Independently appoint the chairmen of the Accounts Chamber and the Central Bank.
- Announces an amnesty.
- Becomes the initiator of the impeachment procedure.
In the meantime, the Federal Council performs the following functions:
- Approves changes in the territorial boundaries of some subjects of the country.
- Declares martial or state of emergency.
- Decides whether to use the army of our country abroad.
- Appoints new presidential elections and his dismissal.
- Appoints judges in the Constitutional Court.
It would seem that completely different functions, but nevertheless they fruitfully work together. So, together occurs:
- Making adjustments and discussion of draft laws.
- Adoption and discussion of the budget for the next year.
- Installation of taxation and the amount of tax and other fees.
- Ratification of international documents and the resolution of issues of peace and war.
- Decision on the status and position of state borders.
As you can see, working together brings good results.
Structure of the State Duma
The Russian State Duma has its own structure. Led by the chairman of the State Duma. He is chosen among all the Duma deputies by secret ballot. The chairman is elected if more than half of the deputies vote for him. In the same way, elections of the first deputy and deputy are held. This procedure is governed by the Regulations of the State Duma. This document establishes that all three positions should be occupied by representatives of different parties and deputy groups.
The powers of the chairman are very similar with the same position in the Federal Council.
The Council of the State Duma is a collegial body that is constantly operating. It was created in order to pre-prepare and consider organizational issues relating to the activities of the chamber. The Council has the Chairman of the State Duma, leaders of deputy associations.The latter have the right to vote. Two deputy chairmen of the State Duma and chairmen of state Duma committees have an advisory vote.
The Council of the State Duma has the following powers:
- Formulate a draft approximate program of bills for the State Duma for the session that is currently taking place.
- Formulate a draft calendar for consideration of issues for the next month.
- Form a draft work of the State Duma for the next meeting.
In the State Duma formed deputy factions. The faction refers to the union of deputies who were elected from the federal candidate list. This list should be allowed to the distribution of mandates of deputies in the State Duma.
Deputies who are not included in the faction can create their own deputy groups. In this case, you need to register only those groups where there are at least thirty-five deputies.
Both deputy groups and deputy factions have equal rights. It is important that the deputy can consist only in one organization.
Commissions and Committees
This is the main structural formation of the State Duma.Committees consider pre-bills that are under their jurisdiction. They also prepare these projects for consideration in the State Duma. Committees are created for the period when the State Duma works, that is, for five years.
Commissions are created in order to perform a specific task or for a period of time. After the need for them disappears, they are dissolved.
Both in one and in another group there are deputies who will represent all factions in the same quantity. How many deputies will be included in this or that group is determined by the State Duma. But, nevertheless, even she has limitations. For example, their number should not be less than twelve and more than thirty-five people.
All deputies, except for the main elite (deputies and the chairman) must be members of a committee of the chamber. Only membership in one committee is allowed. The committees meet to be convened at least twice a month.
The article provided information about what the State Duma is and how it works. Of course, from the outside, everything seems very complicated, but if you set a goal, then you’ll figure it out.
Now, if you want to become a deputy, you know what to do. First, you must be law-abiding and fully capable. Secondly, be prepared for the fact that your property and income will be subjected to the most careful verification. And how else, because the state must be confident in those people who make the laws. Third, get ready for a permanent job. All these items are an integral part of the work of the deputy and they have to be considered.
If you want to live in a civilized state, and you want, then start with yourself. As one intelligent man said: "Clean not where cleaned, but where not litter." And indeed it is. After all, if every citizen obeys the law, then there will be much more order in the country. Therefore, if you want to participate in the life of the country, then run for good thoughts and noble desires. There are enough unclean people everywhere, and one wants to be surrounded only by people loyal to the state. Therefore, do not be afraid of anything and lead people, make laws, but only with a pure heart and a sincere desire to help the country.