The name of the constellations in the sky and their description
Humanity has always looked at the sky. The stars have long been guidebooks of sailors, so they remain today. Constellation is considered to be a group that are united by one name. However, they may be at different distances from each other. Moreover, in ancient times the name of the constellations often depended on the outlines taken by celestial bodies. More on this will be discussed in this article.
There are eighty-eight registered constellations in total. Of these, only forty-seven have been known to mankind since ancient times. It should be said thanks to the astronomer Claudius Ptolemy, who systematized the famous constellations of the starry sky in the treatise "Almagest". The rest appeared at a time when a person began to intensively study the world around, travel more and write down his knowledge. Thus, other groups of objects appeared in the sky.
The constellations in the sky and their names (photos of some of them will be presented in the article) are quite diverse. Many have several names, as well as ancient legends of origin.For example, there is a rather interesting legend about the appearance of the Great and Little Bears. In the days when the gods ruled the world, Zeus was the most powerful of them. And he fell in love with the beautiful nymph Callisto, and he took her as his wife. In order to protect her from the jealous and dangerous in his anger Hera, Zeus took her lover to heaven, turning her into a bear. So it turned out the constellation Ursa Major. The dog Callisto became the Little Bear.
Zodiacal constellations of the solar system: names
The most famous constellations for humanity today are zodiacal. It has long been considered such as those that occur on the path of our Sun during its one-year journey (the ecliptic). This is a fairly wide strip of celestial space, divided into twelve segments.
- A lion;
As you can see, unlike the signs of the zodiac, there is another constellation here - the thirteenth. This happened because over time, the shape of celestial bodies changes. Zodiac signs were formed quite a long time ago when the sky map was slightly different. To date, the position of stars has undergone some changes.So, on the route of the Sun, another constellation appeared - Ophiuchus. In turn, it is just after Scorpio.
The starting point of solar travel is considered to be the vernal equinox. At this point, our star passes through the celestial equator, and the day becomes equal to night (there is also the opposite point - the autumn one).
Constellations Ursa Major and Ursa Minor
One of the most famous constellations of our firmament is the Big Dipper and its attendant Minor. But why did it happen that not the most demanding constellation became so important? The fact is that the Polar Star is present in the cluster of celestial bodies of the Little Bear, which was the guiding light for many generations of sailors, and it remains so for today.
To this has its practical immobility. It is located near the North Pole, and the rest of the stars of the sky revolve around it. This feature of her was noticed by our ancestors, which was reflected in its name among different nations (Golden Stake, Heavenly Stake, Northern Star, etc.).
Of course, there are other major objects in this star-sky constellation, whose names are listed below:
- Cohab (Beta);
- Ferkhad (Gamma);
If we talk about the Big Dipper, it more clearly resembles a bucket in its shape than its small counterpart. According to estimates, only the naked eye in the constellation has about one hundred twenty-five stars. However, there are seven main ones:
- Dubhe (Alpha);
- Merak (Beta);
- Thekda (Gamma);
- Megrets (Delta);
- Aliot (Epsilon);
- Mizar (Zeta);
- Benetnash (This).
Ursa Major has nebulae and galaxies, like other numerous stellar constellations. Their names are presented below:
- Spiral galaxy M81;
- The Owl Nebula;
- Spiral galaxy Spinner;
- Spiral galaxy with a jumper M109.
Most amazing stars
Of course, our sky has quite remarkable constellations (photos and the names of some are presented in the article). However, besides them, there are other amazing stars. For example, in the constellation Big Dog, which is considered ancient since our ancestors knew about it, there is a star Sirius. It is associated with many legends and myths. In ancient Egypt, very carefully watched the movement of this star, there are even some scientists' assumptions that the African pyramids are aimed at it with their sharp points.
Today, Sirius is one of the closest stars to Earth. Its characteristics exceed solar two times. It is believed that if Sirius were in the place of our luminary, then life on the planet in its present form was hardly possible. With such a strong heat all the oceans would boil off the surface.
A rather interesting star that can be seen in the sky of Antarctica is Alpha Centauri. This is the nearest similar star to Earth. According to its structure, this body contains three stars, two of which may well have planets of the terrestrial type. The third, Proxima Centauri, cannot be possessed by all accounts, since it is rather small and cold.
Large and small constellations
It should be noted that today there are large and small constellations recorded. Photos and their names will be presented below. One of the biggest can be called the Hydra. This constellation occupies the area of the starry sky of 1302.84 square degrees. Obviously, that is why it received such a name, all in appearance it resembles a thin and long strip, which occupies a fourth of the star space.The main place where Hydra is located is south of the celestial equator line.
Hydra is rather dull in its star composition. It includes only two worthy objects that stand out significantly in the sky - Alphard and Gamma Hydra. You can also note the open cluster called M48. The second largest constellation belongs to Virgo, which is slightly inferior in size. Therefore, the following representative of the space community is truly small.
So, the smallest constellation in the sky is the Southern Cross, which is located in the Southern Hemisphere. It is considered an analogue of the Big Dipper in the North. Its area is sixty eight square degrees. According to ancient astronomical chronicles, it used to be part of Centauri, and only in 1589 it was singled out separately. As part of the Southern Cross, even with the naked eye can see about thirty stars.
In addition, the constellation has a dark nebula called Coal Sack. It is interesting because it can go star formation processes. Another unusual object is the open cluster of celestial bodies - NGC 4755.
It should also be noted that the name of the constellations in the sky varies with the season. For example, in summer are clearly visible:
- Dolphin and others.
For the winter sky is characterized by other constellations. For example:
- Big Dog;
- Little Dog;
- Eridan et al.
The autumn sky is the following constellations:
- Keith and others
The following constellations open the spring sky:
- Little Lion;
- The raven;
- Hounds Dogs and others.
Constellations of the Northern Hemisphere
In each hemisphere of the Earth can see their own celestial objects. The names of the stars and the constellations in which they enter are quite different. So, consider which of them are characteristic of the northern hemisphere:
- Veronica's hair;
- Northern Crown and others.
Constellations of the Southern Hemisphere
The names of the stars and the constellations in which they enter are also different for the southern hemisphere. Consider some of them:
- The raven;
- Chameleon and others.
The most interesting constellations
Truly, all the constellations in the sky and their names (the photo is presented below) are quite unique.Many have their own special history, beautiful legend or unusual objects. The latter include the constellations of Golden Fish and Toucan. The first is the Large Magellanic Cloud, and the second is the Small. These two objects are truly amazing.
A large cloud is very similar in appearance to a Segner wheel, and Small is like a punching bag. They are quite large in terms of the occupied area in the sky, and observers note their similarity to the Milky Way (although in real sizes they are much smaller). They seem to be part of it, which is separated in the process. However, in their composition they are very similar to our galaxy, besides Clouds are the systems of stars closest to us.
An amazing factor is that our galaxy and Clouds can rotate around a single center of gravity, which forms a triple star system. True, each of these three has its own star clusters, nebulae and other space objects.
So, as you can see, the name of the constellations is quite diverse and unique. Each of them has its own interesting objects, stars. Of course, today we don’t know half of all secrets of the cosmic order, but there is hope for the future.The human mind is quite inquisitive, and if we do not die in a global catastrophe, then there is the possibility of conquering and conquering space, building new and more powerful instruments and ships to gain knowledge. In this case, we will not only know the name of the constellations, but also comprehend much more.