The legal status of the population on the "Russian Truth": features, characteristics and interesting facts

"Russian Truth" is the most important legal source in the history of the Russian state. The document contains provisions on the lifestyle and status of the most diverse sections of the population. In addition, the oldest source is a collection of criminal, civil and cultural norms. In this article the legal status of groups of the population on the “Russian Pravda” will be analyzed. So let's get started.

"Russian Truth": general characteristics

The first official collection of legal norms, which appeared in Kievan Rus, dates back to 1016. Historians call Yaroslav the Wise the main compiler of the document. The document was first discovered by researcher Vasily Tatishchev, who found and analyzed a brief edition of it.

legal status of the population in Russian truth

"Russian Truth" includes norms of hereditary, procedural, criminal and commercial nature. In fact, a small document provided comprehensive information on almost all the rules of public life. Separately, it is worth highlighting the categories of the population according to the “Russian Pravda”, their legal status and status. At the moment, not a single original copy of the famous document has been preserved. There are only relatively late versions and lists dated from the 13th-15th centuries.

Princes and their entourage

A little more is to talk about the legal status of the population on the "Russian Truth". You need to start with the privileged layers. In Russia, at the beginning of the second millennium, these were the boyars and princes. The princes in the document are those who hold power in a particular region. The Kiev prince acts as the grand prince, his sons or relatives sit in other Russian cities. The prince has two main functions: administer court and collect taxes.

The expression "princes' men" is used in the document several times. So in Russia called people who are surrounded by the ruler. These are loyal to the prince filed, one might say, his agents.The persons represented cannot be singled out as a separate class. Although the legal status of the population implies the presence of “princely men” in “Russkaya Pravda”, these individuals are not indicated in any other ancient Russian source.

legal status of groups of people in Russian truth

Finally, it is worth talking about boyars. This is a privileged class, obliged to faithfully serve its prince. Boyarsky servants perform various functions. These should be discussed further.

Boyars and know

What is the place of the boyars in the population of the "Russian Pravda"? The legal status of the feudal lords is always different, because each member of the privileged class has its own functions and duties.

In "Russian Truth" is often found the concept of "tiun". This is the boyar or princely manager, who could have a different legal status. The concept itself came from Scandinavia, where feunal lords were called Tiunami. They collected tribute, managed the townships and even ruled the court. In Russia, the position of the persons represented was different. At the time of the emergence of the “Russian Truth,” the Tiuns were most often the boyars close to the prince. They were engaged in the management and organization of the functions of their ruler.However, over time, the status of tiuna began to acquire even serfs.

Ognischanin was also a privileged servant. He was engaged in the protection of princely property. According to the "Russian Truth" life ognischanina estimated at 80 hryvnia This is twice the price of the common man. There are also "old grooms" - princely servants, managing the stables of their ruler.

Clergy

Representatives of the Orthodox Church have a special legal position on the "Russian Pravda". The population of the ancient Russian state had a large percentage of clergy, churchmen and monks.

legal status of the population in Russian truth feudal lords

The clergy in Russia was divided into black and white. The white category included priests (ordinary priests are the most numerous group), archpriest, protopresbyters, and also various types of deacons. A special place in Russian Orthodoxy was occupied by clergymen who adopted the schema — a special spiritual status. The black category includes monasticism, also classified by several types. Yaroslav the Wise actively contributed to the development of the clergy in Russia. In the "Russian Truth" were recorded separate rules for killing or causing harm to representatives of the church.

Free people

Who was in the category of so-called commoners? What status did independent and free inhabitants of Russia have? The legal status of the population according to the brief “Russian Pravda” is reflected quite clearly. The main actor in this document is a husband - a free person. For the murder of her husband is entitled to a fine of 40 hryvnia. Husbands could be called the most different representatives of the ancient Russian population.

legal status of the population in Russian truth briefly

The so-called communist communists were independent both legally and economically. These people carried out separate duties in favor of the state, and also paid taxes. It is also worth highlighting the townspeople. Both smerds and posadniki had property that could be inherited. For the crimes and misdemeanors committed, the representatives of these categories bore property and personal responsibility. In the cities, there were also different social groups: artisans, workers, small traders, merchants and other categories of people. The legal status of the free population according to "Russkaya Pravda" was stipulated for each separate category. Basically, fines and other types of punishments for various crimes and offenses were established.It was by the severity of the sanctions that it was possible to determine how privileged this or that class is.

Zakupy and ryadovichi

It should go to a group of dependent people. In this industry stands a fairly large number of categories of the population. The most preferred group among dependent people are the so-called warlords and princes of the breadwinners. This is the head man, dealing with managerial affairs.

legal status of the population in Russian truth table

The lowest position was occupied by procurement, smerds and ryadovichi. In this case, the dependent smerda should not be confused with the communist communist, who was in an intermediate position on the “ladder of dependence,” and therefore possessed some rights and opportunities. The dependent smerd is a simple peasant whose property the prince inherited. Purchased people called slaves because of debt bondage. These are dependent rusichi who have taken a “kupu” - a debt that they could not later be given back. Rowards, in turn, concluded a “row” with the feudal lord - a special contract under which they were given responsibilities for tillage.

Slaves

On the most powerless and most dependent category of people should be told separately.The serfs in Kievan Rus were close in status to slaves, however, according to many historians, they were not. According to Russkaya Pravda, the legal status of social groups close to servile ones did not have the status of a subject, but an object of law. For killing his slave no fines were not. For someone else paid 12 hryvnia. Here it is worth remembering the price of a commoner’s life, which, according to the document in question, was 40 hryvnia. The difference between free people and lackeys is obvious.

Servitude manifested itself in many forms. Groups of slaves depend on how exactly this or that person has acquired this status. For example, the prosecutor who committed a serious crime turned into obel (complete) servility, which was inherited. The same goes for insolvency in paying the debt. Sometimes the amount due for payment could be so great that the debtor immediately became not a purchase, but a slave.

legal status of the free population in Russian truth

Do not confuse slaves with chelyadinami. The so-called servants acquired semi-Arab status as a result of capture, which was often used during military campaigns. Chelyadinov in Russia was incredibly much.Almost every family, the head of which participated in the military campaign, had with it one foreign slave.

The population of the "Russian Truth": table

The legal status of each category of the population can be characterized indefinitely. However, the best understanding comes only when looking at the structure of the inhabitants of Kievan Rus, recorded in the form of a table.

The lower strata of the population on the "Russian Truth"

townspeople

rural people

servility

merchants

smerds

servants (prisoners)

artisans

Rowards

debt serfs

small traders

purchases

The table presents a fairly generalized data. So, there are still disputes about whether the villagers should be counted as servile. Historians also discuss the role of the slaves. Not all of them were dependent.

The highest strata of the population according to the “Russian Truth

clergy

secular class

Metropolitan (head of the church)

boyars (tiuny, fire lights, princes men, etc.)

bishop (head of a parish or monastery)

Grand Prince of Kiev

white clergy (priests, deacons, novices, etc.)

princes

black clergy (monasticism)

Thus, the data in the form of a table gives the best description of the legal status of the population according to Russkaya Pravda.

Collection of criminal norms

The provisions governing penalties for crimes or misdemeanors best reflect the legal inequality of various categories of the population. The subject of the crime in Kievan Rus was considered to be any person other than a slave. Russkaya Pravda did not provide for the age of criminal responsibility for people. However, the document has already reflected the concept of complicity.
legal status of the population according to Russian truth

The main crime in the document is "Tatba", that is, theft. The worst type of tatby was considered stealing. No less attention was paid to the murder. The most frequent type of punishment for murder or beating was a fine. Its sum varied depending on which category of population a person belongs to.

Civil law

Old Russian legislation knew a vast and high-quality civil system. Considerable attention in the "Russian Truth" is paid to the right of ownership. The feudal lord possessed the full property right to production assets and incomplete ownership of the employee.

For damage to property, the perpetrator had to pay a fine and pay damages. Was developed and a negotiated system. It was she who formed and consolidated the legal status of the population of Ancient Russia. People took debts, became addicted, and then entered into a row or a cup.All this contributed to the establishment of the social system that has been preserved for many subsequent centuries.

Related news

The legal status of the population of the Russian Truth: features, characteristics and interesting facts image, picture, imagery


The legal status of the population of the Russian Truth: features, characteristics and interesting facts 27


The legal status of the population of the Russian Truth: features, characteristics and interesting facts 58


The legal status of the population of the Russian Truth: features, characteristics and interesting facts 86


The legal status of the population of the Russian Truth: features, characteristics and interesting facts 68


The legal status of the population of the Russian Truth: features, characteristics and interesting facts 32


The legal status of the population of the Russian Truth: features, characteristics and interesting facts 9


The legal status of the population of the Russian Truth: features, characteristics and interesting facts 81


The legal status of the population of the Russian Truth: features, characteristics and interesting facts 91


The legal status of the population of the Russian Truth: features, characteristics and interesting facts 6


The legal status of the population of the Russian Truth: features, characteristics and interesting facts 38