Syntactic norms in the exam in the Russian language: parse task A5
The unified state examination in the Russian language contains a question in the first block of tasks, the wording of which is not completely clear to most graduates. The person being tested must determine in which of the sentences a grammatical error is made, namely, the syntactic norms are violated. In some cases, the answer is obvious, and the graduate intuitively chooses the answer, based on the "unconscious" knowledge of the language. Those of the guys for whom the language is not native are the hardest, and they started to study it later than the others.About 20% of those tested do not cope with this task anyway. So, in order to protect yourself from this error in the easiest block of the Unified State Exam - part A, you need to decide what the syntactic norms are. To do this, you must first recall a broader basic definition.
What is syntax and what is the language requirement?
To answer this question, you need to take a break from the structure of the language itself. It most closely resembles a multi-layered cake. There are several layers in it - sections, the knowledge of which should fit snugly in the student's head so that he can see the big picture. That is why, already from the 5th grade, the study of the subject occurs in stages. Up to the seventh grade, as a rule, children are introduced to morphology - a section on parts of speech. In high school, more syntax is studied. Naturally, other sections (phonetics, vocabulary, style, etc.) cannot be ignored. But without knowledge of these two "whales" - morphology and syntax, it is impossible to understand the grammar.Laws according to which words are combined into meaningful language segments are considered in syntax. Sentences and phrases do not appear, if the units of which they are composed, jot down in random order. In order to express a certain idea, we all unconsciously use certain linguistic laws. Each of us, while still a preschooler, has mastered the main part of such rules. For example, that the actor in a sentence is most often indicated by a word in the nominative case.Long before the child is told what a declension is, he is already actively using it: “Mom, buy me a toy!” He, naturally, does not understand that he used the word “toy” in an indirect case. This happens because speech and its norms are copied by the kid from the conversations of others. Nevertheless, as soon as the child built his first sentence, he began to use syntactic norms. These are the very laws that strictly regulate the rules for constructing sentences, as well as phrases.
The most "imperceptible" errors in task A5
The list of all laws of word compatibility in sentences within one article is difficult to put. But let's consider the most difficult cases. Let's start with such concepts as coordination and management. In the tests of the exam in the Russian language, many do not see the error in this version:
- Andrei waited all evening and called his girlfriend.
In this example, the syntax rules related to control are violated. The first of the homogeneous predicates “waited” does not fit the word “girlfriend”. According to the language norm, both verbs in this case should control it. If this does not happen, then it is necessary to rebuild the phrase so that each predicate is combined with the word in a suitable case. This is where the pronouns help us:
- Andrew the whole evening was waiting for her friend and called her.
Another difficult case of management is the correct use of prepositions. Some of them, especially derivatives (thanks to, contrary to, according to, and so on.) It is appropriate to use only with words in the dative case. Others, for example, “during”, “in continuation”, “in conclusion”, are combined only with R. p. The form of the preposition "on arrival" generally needs to be remembered. Somewhat exotic for modern conversational practice form is the only correct one. The grammatical errors in such sentences are skillfully hidden:
- Everyone who could, went home.
- Those who love to read, have a good imagination.
In these complex sentences, the word "who" is combined with the verb in the plural. But the syntactic norms of the Russian language indicate to us that in this case the verb in singular parts is necessary. The incorrect combination of the verb and the noun is included in the rating of the most "inconspicuous" errors. Such cases are numerous. But the most frequent are such options:
- It is difficult to distinguish parts of speech from words that are written in the same way.
- Maria said she would miss us.
In the first case, the verb "distinguish" requires the construction of "what from what." In the second, the form of the pronoun “we” with the verb “miss” is used incorrectly. That's right: miss us.Naturally, not all syntactic norms require careful study. But to pay attention to them and to repeat the main ones in preparation for the exam is absolutely useless.