Sweet cherry: planting and caring for seedlings. Cherry varieties, photo
Cherry, a cultivated plant of the same genus as cherry, has recently become increasingly popular with Russian gardeners. And no wonder. After all, the fruits of this tree are much larger and sweeter than those of cherries. However, to grow this heat-loving culture in conditions of central Russia is much more difficult. First of all, sweet cherries, planting and caring for which are carried out according to a special technology, should receive light and water in sufficient quantities. Also, when growing it, you should perform a number of activities aimed at preparing for the winter period.
All the sweet cherry grown in the world is classified into Bigarro and Ginny. The fruits of the varieties of the latter type ripen very early, differ juiciness, but not too good keeping quality. Bigarro cherry berries have dense pulp and contain less sugar, but are much more transportable.
All varieties grown in the gardens of Russia, are divided into winter-hardy and having an average frost resistance. If for Moscow or the Leningrad region it is still permissible to choose the second species, then in the Urals and in Siberia, of course, only the sweet cherry, which is very resistant to low temperatures, should be planted. Planting and caring for this fruit tree in regions with a sharply continental climate are operations, among other things, having a number of features.
To begin with, let's consider the characteristics of the most popular varieties of this fruit tree among Russian summer residents. Perhaps this will help someone to make a choice.
This variety has a very high yield and medium winter hardiness. As can be judged by the name, it is best to feel such a sweet cherry in the Leningrad region. Planting and caring for this variety is usually carried out by standard technology, which will be discussed in detail below.
The advantages of this variety, in addition to unpretentiousness, also include partial self-fertility. Early ripening berries with very sweet tender juicy flesh - this is also what distinguishes the Leningradskaya black black cherry.Planting and caring for this variety is an operation, though not very complicated, but quite responsible. In any case, the plants will have to get quite a lot of water. The fruits of this variety are not only juicy, but very large. Individual berries can reach a weight of 12 g. The pulp of the Leningrad black fruit has a maroon saturated color.
This variety is characterized by moderate resistance to winter cold. Its main distinguishing features are not too dense crown and large sweet fruits. The weight of the latter can reach 7 g. The skin of the berries is very dark, almost black. Immunity to such a common disease as coccomycosis is one of the main advantages that distinguishes Bull's Heart cherries. Planting and caring for this variety are procedures that, therefore, do not involve performing any particularly complex actions with regard to protecting plants from this infection. Fruits of the Bullish Heart variety are different in that they can be eaten fresh or used for canning.
This early ripe variety has a very large and dense crown.The ability to withstand relatively low temperatures in winter is what distinguishes a variety such as Valery Chkalov. Planting and caring for this species, therefore, can be carried out by a simpler technology. At least in relation to the preparation for the winter. The fruits of the cherries Valery Chkalov are very large (up to 8 g), have a sweet taste and have a dark red color of flesh and skin.
The varieties described above are very popular among Russian summer residents cherry. In the Moscow region, planting and caring for them, as well as in the Leningrad region, are quite laborious operations, but still quite doable. For these regions, such varieties of sweet cherries fit very well. For the Urals or Siberia, it is better to choose more winter-hardy varieties. This may be, for example:
- Fatezh. The fruits of this sweet cherry are not particularly large (up to 4.5 g). They ripen only by mid-July. But now it is one of the most winter-hardy varieties of all cultivated in our country.
- Jealousy. Also quite resistant to Russian cold weather grade.
- Bryansk pink. Another sweet cherry with not too large fruits, but capable of enduring quite severe frosts.
How to choose seedlings
The success of growing a fruit tree such as sweet cherry depends largely on how well the planting material is selected. Purchase seedlings should be only in nurseries with a good reputation. Otherwise, instead of one variety, you can purchase a completely different one, which is absolutely not suitable for the conditions of this particular area.
When choosing seedlings, among other things, you should pay attention to their root system. It should be well developed. Also, experienced gardeners are not advised to purchase cherry seedlings older than two years. Such planting material is very poorly accepted.
Where to plant
Sweet cherry, planting and caring for which - the procedures are rather technologically complex, refers to the light-loving plants. Therefore, it is necessary to pick up a well-lit area for it. No tall trees nearby should grow. If the sweet cherry is decided to be planted next to the house, then it should be its southern or at least east side.
Does not like this fruit tree and too close location of groundwater. It is usually planted on a small hill or the side of a hill.If the terrain at the site is absolutely flat, an earthen mound of at least 50 cm high is arranged under the cherry. Light loams and sandy loams are considered to be the best soil types for this crop. Peaty, clay and deep sandy soils are not suitable for it.
When choosing a place for a sweet cherry, it should also be borne in mind that this plant refers to the cross-pollinated. And consequently, it is impossible to land it alone. Otherwise, the sweet cherry will not bear fruit. For each variety you need to choose 2-3 most suitable pollinators.
How to plant
Planting cherries in the Moscow region and other regions of the central zone is as follows:
- In the autumn, a pit is being prepared under the tree. Its width should be about 80-100 cm, depth - 50-60 cm.
- At the bottom of the pit is filled with a bucket of humus and a little garden soil.
- In the spring, this mixture is podushivayutsya with forks.
- On top of it is poured a kilogram of wood ash and a pound of superphosphate.
- Everything is mixed up again.
- Before planting, the roots of the seedling are immersed in water for ten hours.
- After that they are dipped in a solution of mullein with clay in a ratio of 2: 1 to 5 liters of water.
When performing an operation such as planting a sapling of sweet cherries, you should monitor the position of the root collar. In the ground it can not be buried in any case.The roots need to straighten in a hole and sprinkle with garden soil. Next, the tree is watered and mulch pristvolny circle with humus.
How to care
It is in this way that they plant such a fruit crop as sweet cherry. In the Moscow region planting and caring for it, as in the Leningrad region, are enterprises fit for almost every summer resident. All that the owners will need to do during the growing season is to periodically water the tree, form its crown and prepare it for the winter.
In the Urals and in Siberia, in order to preserve trees in the cold season, in addition to the standard measures carried out in the European part of Russia, you will have to take a number of rather complicated technically and labor-intensive measures. About what exactly, let's talk a little below.
Cherry stagnation of water, the landing and care of which should be carried out in strict compliance with the technology, as already mentioned, does not like. That is why it is usually planted on a hillock. However, this plant tolerates drought very hard. And consequently, watering seedlings will have quite often.Moisturize the soil under the rooted trees at least once every two weeks. If on the street there is a very hot windy weather, the interval between irrigation is reduced to 10 days. More often it is impossible to moisten the soil under the trees. Otherwise, ripening fruits will begin to crack on the cherry from an overabundance of moisture.
Preparing for the winter
So, thermophilicity - this is what distinguishes cherries. Planting and care in the middle lane should be carried out taking into account this factor. In order to save the plants in winter, the owners of the summer cottage will need to first of all ensure that in the fall they do not spend too much energy on growing new shoots. And this is sure to happen if in the summer any fertilizers are applied under the trees. The last feeding of cherries should be done no later than the end of April - beginning of May. The exception to this rule is only superphosphate. His solution is to water the trees or spray their foliage in September. This will help them gain strength and easier to transfer frosts.
It is also an operation that requires such a culture as sweet cherry.Planting and care (pruning is done only in the spring) for her - procedures that require some skill in such a matter as the formation of the crown of fruit trees. Immediately after planting, the side shoots of the seedling should be slightly shortened. This will allow to form a more harmonious crown. The main pruning of cherries is done before bud break. In the autumn to weaken the plant can not in any case. In addition to the extra, from the crown remove all the wrong growing, frozen and dried branches. Sections without fail are smeared with garden pitch.
Cherry in the Urals: planting and care
Cherry planting in this region is made using approximately the same technology as in the Moscow region. Care for this fruit crop in the Urals and in Siberia is also carried out according to the method discussed above. The only exception is the operation such as preparing trees for winter.
The fact is that in the Urals and in Siberia in the cold season, even varieties resistant to low temperatures often freeze out. At the same time, only that part of the tree that was under the snow in winter can remain alive. Therefore, next, let us take a look at the method of conservation in regions with a climate of a tree such as sweet cherry that is not very suitable for heat-loving plants.Planting and care in the middle lane behind her are quite responsible procedures. If we talk about the Urals and Siberia, then its cultivation usually presupposes a great experience in gardening. To minimize the risk of freezing in these regions:
- Cherry give stansent form.
- Cover it for the winter with hay or other suitable material.
In order to give the tree a stancate form, as the seedling grows, its trunk is gradually and gently tilted to the north. To do this, for the winter the plant is pressed to the ground, and in the spring they are again raised to an inclined position. As a result, every year the tree falls to the soil lower and lower, at the same time forming a normal crown. In the end, the cherry must take a highly inclined (but not horizontal) position.
In the fall, branches of such a tree are tightly pressed to the ground and covered with hay. In the spring it is removed, after which the cherry is lifted to its former position by itself. For better development, the cattle are substituted for it so that the crown is at a height of about 1.5 meters. The ground under the tree must be completely naked, then it will play the role of a kind of solar heating “battery”.
This is the way in which they take care of cherries in the European part of Russia, in the Urals and in Siberia.As you can see, planting it on the site is only for summer residents who have quite a lot of experience in growing fruit trees. Beginner gardeners may, however, first still need to practice on some less fastidious crops.