Structure of the political system
The political system works as a unitdue to the fact that the elements that make up constantly interact with each other. But at the same time, it's just not their sum. The concept and structure of the political system are inseparable from the concept of the meaning of each separately taken element. Therefore, theoretically, it splits into different parts for different reasons.
The structure of the political system can be basedon the understanding of its role. Then it is viewed from the standpoint of the type of interaction between actors playing certain roles and drawing on certain patterns.
In addition, the structure of the political system canbe based on an institutional approach. This is due to the fact that the maintenance of specific needs and performance of functions is assigned to each institution.
The structure of the political system can alsoto be delimited by the principle of stratification. In this case, it is based on the order that some groups participate in the administration of the state. As a rule, decisions are made by the elite, their bureaucracy fulfills, and citizens already form their institutions of power representing their interests.
The fact that the structure of the political system is basedon various grounds, speaks of the hierarchical nature of its elements. That is, its components are also organized according to the same principle as the whole of it. And from this it follows that the political system always consists of several subsystems. Interacting with each other, they form an integrity.
1. Institutional subsystem. It looks like a complex of political, state and other institutions that express the interests of various groups and individuals. The most global needs of society are realized with the help of the state. The degree of specialization and differentiation of functions and roles within this structural element determines its maturity.
2. Normative subsystem. It is made up of a set of all norms, on the basis of which the authorities fulfill their roles. These are some kind of rules that can be passed orally to the next generations (customs, traditions, symbols), and can be recorded (legal acts, constitutions).
3. Communicative subsystem. It looks like an interaction of political actors that follow the fixed and non-fixed rules mentioned above. Relations can be built on the basis of conflict or consent. Also they can have different direction and intensity. The more organized the communicative system, the more power is open to citizens. Then she enters into a dialogue with the public, exchanges information with her, reacts to the demands of the people.
4. Cultural subsystem. It is made up of priority values of the basic confession, societies in the subculture, patterns of behavior, mentality and beliefs. This subsystem establishes relations between citizens and politicians, gives common meaning to their actions, leads to agreement, mutual understanding, and stabilizes society as a whole. Of great importance is the level of cultural homogeneity. The higher it is, the more effective are the political institutions. The main element of the cultural subsystem is religion, which dominates in a particular society. It determines the behavior of individuals, the forms of interaction between them.
5. Functional subsystem. It is a complex of technologies used in politics to implement power.
The structure andfunctions of the political system, and not just its components. The fact is that the function of each element implements some one specific need. And all together they provide a full-fledged work of the political system as a whole.