Soviet foreign policy in the 20-30 years. USSR history
- It is a great and powerful country that existed in the twentieth century. In world history, she left a mark as a leading country. But there was a time when the USSR also sought recognition of European states, starting to develop from the very bottom.
The beginning of the twentieth century was marked for the Russian Empire by a number of historically important events: the First World War, the February October Revolution, the overthrow of the house of the Romanovs and the formation of a new state. From this moment begins a new page in the history of the Russian state - the history of the USSR. The government headed by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin laid the idea of achieving socialism as the basis for the development of the newly formed state.
World recognition of the USSR in the 20-30s of the XX century
Despite the fact that the overthrow of the monarchy and the transformation of the state took place in 1917, the country received international recognition after the 20s. The foreign policy of the USSR in the 20-30s was primarily aimed at the recognition of the newly formed state throughout the world.
After a premature exit from the First World War and the refusal to pay the tsarist debts of the USSR fell into disgrace of the world leading states. However, in 1922, after the official unification of Ukraine, Belarus, the Transcaucasus and Russia into a single Union, the beginning of the band of diplomatic recognition of the USSR was laid. It was possible to achieve European predisposition and lift the economic blockade thanks to the First People’s Commissars for Foreign Affairs. This post was occupied at that time by G.V. Chicherin and M.M. Litvinov.
An important role was played by the introduction of the NEP. The famine of 1921 caused discontent among the peasants and workers, which escalated into the Kronstadt insurgency. The political system of the USSR in the 20-30 years needed to change its direction and was transformed from war communism into a new economic policy. Such changes in the internal governance of the country softened the attitude of Western states towards Russia and contributed to their rapprochement in the future.
The first was to conclude an international treaty with the Soviet Union, Estonia; after that, for three years, treaties were concluded with another 13 European countries. In 1922, during the Genoa Conference, where the USSR was invited to resolve the conflict between Western countries and Russia, the Rapall Treaty was signed with Germany.Later, treaties were signed that dealt with issues of borders and economic relations with neighboring countries: Afghanistan, Turkey, Iran. During 1921-22, the Soviet Union signed trade agreements with Norway, England, Austria, Czechoslovakia and Italy. The foreign policy of the USSR in the 20-30s began its active development.
However, such a foreign policy uplift did not last long, and soon new conflicts appeared. After the death of V.I. Lenin in 1923, internal political clashes occurred between his entourage for the vacant place of leader. He was taken by the resolute and ambitious Joseph Stalin. To achieve his goals, he used any means. Such a sharp policy of the Generalissimo followed in international relations.
In 1927 a riot of miners broke out in England. The USSR supported them and planned to provide material assistance. This behavior of the state turned away from the government of England and served as an impetus for breaking all diplomatic relations. Following England, a ban was imposed on the supply of goods from the Soviet Union, Canada, the United States, France and Belgium.
After 2 years in China, the political liberation movement broke out, which also supported the USSR, but in the end everything ended in defeat and aggravation of relations with China. It was possible to restore them only in 1930 in order to resist the growing aggression from Japan.
Period of global economic crisis
In 1929, an incredible event occurred that led to the development of the global crisis. In history, it went under the name "Black Tuesday". Suddenly there was a collapse of the stock exchange on Wall Street. The fall in stocks began on Thursday, but the full collapse came on Tuesday, October 29, 1929. Since the majority of European countries that suffered losses during the First World War, survived on cash loans from the United States, the fall of the dollar immediately led to these states in the economic crisis. Mass protests began, unemployment increased, living conditions deteriorated. Such problems have contributed to domestic political change in many countries.
What, at that time, was the government of the Soviet Union engaged in? In the USSR in the 20-30 years of the twentieth century, a period of economic recovery.The plans of the first "five-year plans" appeared, the agreements with the leading European countries were re-concluded. During the world crisis in the USSR, exports of foodstuffs increased significantly: bread, grain, meat and other products. The foreign policy of the USSR in the 20-30s experienced a new rise.
Position of the USSR in the late 30s
It was not until mid-1933 that the crisis could be suppressed. At the same time, an important change occurred that significantly influenced the course of history - the coming to power of Adolf Hitler in Germany. While the world leaders were busy solving domestic political problems, the development of the military industry began in Germany, in circumvention of the conditions of the Versailles Treaty.
The Union was again able to return the favor of the European states and strengthen its position. The foreign policy of the USSR in the 20-30 years moved to a new level of European relations. This is evidenced by the entry in 1934 of the Union in the League of Nations. In connection with the events that took place in Germany, the USSR made a proposal to create a system of common security in Europe.
A year later, mutual assistance agreements were signed with France and Czechoslovakia in the event of an attack by a European state, which implicitly implied Germany.One by one they began to conclude similar documents with the Union of China, Poland, Lithuania, Estonia.
In turn, Germany creates an alliance with Japan, and later with Italy. Gradually began aggressive actions by Germany in relation to the closest countries.
Active foreign policy of the USSR
From 1936 to 1941, the Soviet Union was active in foreign policy, supported the Spanish government in the fight against the rebels, which were sponsored by Germany and Italy. He helped the USSR to China in its confrontation with Japan. At the same time, in 1933, the Soviet Union attacked Finland. As a result, the northern part of Karelia was annexed to the state. This behavior angered the European Government. As a result, the USSR was expelled from the League of Nations.
The situation in Europe has changed dramatically, as well as the foreign policy of the USSR. In place of M. Litvinov came V.M. Molotov. In the light of recent events, the Soviet Union took a serious step - the signing of a secret non-aggression pact with Germany, known in the history of the USSR as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. A week later, German troops entered the territory of Poland, starting the Second World War.