South Ukrainian NPP: history, description, address
The South Ukrainian NPP is the second by the total capacity of Ukraine. In its structure there are three water-cooled power units of the VVER-1000 class, which annually generate about 15-20 billion kW of electricity (one tenth of the total generated in the country). The station is the core of the South-Ukrainian energy complex, which includes, in addition to nuclear power plants, the Tashlyk Hydroelectric Power Station and Aleksandrovskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant. Included in the NAEC "Energoatom".
Where is the South Ukrainian NPP
The nuclear power plant is located in the north-eastern part of the Nikolaev region, on the left bank of the Southern Bug River. Over time, the satellite city of Yuzhnoukrainsk, whose population currently exceeds 40,000 people, has grown near SUNPP, making it one of the largest settlements in the region.
The distance to the city of Nikolaev, if you follow the public roads, is 120 km (in a straight line - 114 km). To Kiev - 370 km along the road, 284 km - in a straight line. Address of the South Ukrainian NPP: 55000, reg. Nikolaev, Yuzhnoukrainsk, YuUAES.
Prerequisites to create
In the 60-70s, industry developed rapidly in the southern regions of the Ukrainian SSR, military facilities of strategic importance were built, and the population grew. For the uninterrupted supply of electricity to the region, it was decided to build a nuclear power plant. But unlike other similar objects, the NPP was supposed to operate in conjunction with other producers of electrical and thermal energy - hydroelectric power plants and PSPs. Thus, the problem of daily peak loads during the day and periods of decline at night was solved. As a result, the South Ukrainian Energy Complex was formed - the only one in the country.
Construction of the first nuclear reactor (YAR) at the South Ukrainian NPP began on March 1, 1977. Two years later, on October 1, 1979, the construction of the second reactor unit was launched. On December 31, 1982, YAR No. 1 was synchronized with the unified power grid; on January 6, 1985, the second unit was synchronized.
In 1985 and 1987, construction of reactor units No. 3 and No. 4 began. On September 20, 1989, the third unit came into force. After the collapse of the USSR, construction work on the fourth reactor block was stopped.
According to the plan, the second power unit of the South Ukrainian NPP was to be decommissioned in 2016.However, the administration of the nuclear power plant proposed to extend its work. In the spring of 2015, public hearings were held in nearby communities, in which almost one and a half thousand residents of Nikolayevshchina took part. In October 2015, a full inspection was carried out by the commission of the SRPI, which gave an opinion on the readiness of YAR No. 2 to over-design operation with the condition of observing the strictest security measures.
If you look at the satellite photos of the South Ukrainian NPP, it becomes clear that the station is located on a separate site a few kilometers east of the city of Yuzhnoukrainsk. On an area of about 3.5 km2there are three reactors, steam generators, cooling towers, reloading and holding pools, production facilities.
On YuUAES used reactor units of various modifications. They have similar parameters (water-to-water type, each - with a capacity of 950 MW), but differ in structural features. YAR of the first VVER-1000 unit of version 302 is one of a kind. It was made in the Rostov region by Atommash specialists.
Reactors of blocks 2 and 3 are also representatives of the VVER-1000 family, but in modifications 338 and 320, respectively.They were engaged in production at the Izhora plant near Leningrad. YAR VVER-1000-338 to some extent is experimental. In addition to Yuzhnoukrainsk, it was used only at Kalinin NPP in Russia. Reactors of the VVER-1000-320 series are much more widespread, they can be found at many nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe. The net capacity of the power units is 950 MW each, the total power is 1000 MW, the heat capacity is 3200 MW.
Since the mid-1990s, millions of dollars have been invested with the help of western companies in upgrading reactor protection and control systems. Workers adopt invaluable safety experience at the German Grondda NPP, with which the South Ukrainian Nuclear Power Plant has developed partnerships to share experiences.
Over 40 years of work at the station, several generations of managers have changed. Its directors are:
- Victor G. Kovalenko (1.03.1975 - 07.25.1976).
- Fuchs Vladimir Pavlovich (07.27.1976 - 1.03.1998).
- Leonid Korchagin (2.03.1998 - 09/07/1999).
- Bilyk Boris Ivanovich (09/08/1999 - January 4, 2007).
- Kim Vissarion Vladimirovich (January 5, 2007 - 08.2012).
- Kuznetsov Vyacheslav Ivanovich (08.2012 - 03.2014, and. Of.).
- Lisnichenko Vladimir Anatolyevich (since 03/19/2014).
In 2000, the government raised the issue of diversifying fuel supplies in order to reduce dependence on Russian producers. In August 2005, six fuel assemblies of the leading US electrical engineering company Westinghouse were installed for testing at the South Ukrainian NPP.
However, given that the old reactors were designed to work with Russian nuclear fuel, from time to time there were problems with the operation of American products. In 2012, at YAR No. 2 and No. 3, due to problems with the rim of the distance grilles of two TVS-W assemblies, the fuel from the USA was replaced with Russian TVEL.
In 2015, work began again on 42 Westinghouse fuel assemblies. Some of them were depressurized during operation. In 2016, the American company upgraded nuclear fuel to the TVS-WR version, which was certified by the SRIAR. As a result, the operation of both types of assemblies, Westinghouse and TVEL, has begun.
In recent years, Ukraine has seriously engaged in the eradication of such public vices as bribery, theft, forgery, nepotism, etc. This company has not bypassed and the South Ukrainian NPP.NABU (National Anti-Corruption Bureau of Ukraine) revealed a number of facts when some employees, taking advantage of their official position, overestimated the cost of purchased equipment. Several criminal cases were opened against them.