Soundproofing the floor in the apartment: materials and technology
Quite often, making repairs in an apartment or house, many do not consider it necessary to perform sound insulation of the floor. It is believed that this is only an additional cost. But this approach is not entirely correct, it entails certain troubles. Noise isolation of the floor in an apartment or house prevents the penetration into the room of extraneous noise that neighbors produce from below. You can apply for this service to professionals, but it’s easier and cheaper to do it yourself. This is an invaluable experience that can come in handy.
Types of noise
Before you take measures to protect against noise, you need to figure out what it actually is and how you can protect against it. There are the following types:
- Impact noise Occurs with a variety of mechanical effects. This is a hated hammer, the noise from the work of manual building tools, the sounds of heels, jumping children. A sound wave is generated as a result of exposure to the overlap between floors.To suppress this wave, it is recommended to use a honeycomb soundproof panel.
- Structural noise is a variety of vibration effects on the walls, floor, ceiling of the power tools, the movement of furniture. It is transmitted when there are no sound insulating gaskets between the bearing elements in the building. At the same time, it is sometimes very difficult to determine a specific source - structural noise spreads throughout the house. To ensure silence it is necessary to protect the joints of the apartment with special pads.
- Airborne noise These are all sounds from the street, from other apartments, from the next rooms. The list can include the speech of people, TV, sounds of home appliances, cars. It is transmitted through the air. It can be loosened with fibrous or porous sound-proofing materials.
- You can also highlight other types of noise. This is external noise from the street, inside the house, inside the apartment, as well as inside the room.
You need to understand that completely get rid of it will not work - it is impossible in practice. It is important that the sounds do not exceed a certain level of comfort. If there is a background from the harsh noise, then it will no longer be annoying. Noise is necessary for a person in some insignificant measure - silence is harmful.
Purpose of noise insulation
Factory reinforced concrete floor slab is not able to meet the requirements specified in the construction standard SP 51.13330. To improve the acoustic characteristics in apartments and houses it is recommended to make sound insulation of the floor. At the stage of development of this project should be understood a few basic nuances.
This is a regulation on the sound insulation characteristics of building structures. It is listed in SP 51.13330. From this it follows that the levels of impact noise under the overlap should correspond to a maximum of 60 dBA. The air index is at least 52 dBA.
The floor slab is used by two apartment owners. Air noises as well as percussion sound oxen are transmitted by the building in two directions. The vibropressed plate with a thickness of 16 millimeters and hollow ceilings with a thickness of 22 centimeters have an index of 52 dBA and meet the standards. Plate thickness of 14 millimeters does not reach the norm. It can have through cracks, various traces of alterations and major repairs.
When building a house for builders, it is important not to spoil the factory norms of the plates, while maintaining the sound insulation index from airborne noise. The index will decrease if you do not finish the nodes between the inter-floor risers.
As for isolation from impact noise, the situation is worse.The ceilings are very rigidly bonded to the wall with masonry. They become conductors of structural noise. The tiles can be laid tile or porcelain tiles - this increases the level of impact noise. The plate with a thickness of 14 centimeters is characterized by a characteristic of 80 dBA - insulation is required here.
Thus, it is necessary to soundproof the floor in an apartment under a screed or under another floor in order not to become a headache for the neighbors.
All types of mineral construction wool will be suitable for solving such problems. This is a porous material. Materials with a porosity of more than 80 percent have excellent sound insulation performance. The decarmeter of the pores must not be more than one millimeter. This also includes aerated concrete and fiberboard.
Mineral wool has a lot of different advantages. The disadvantage of this material is one - it is a large plate thickness. A plate with a thickness of 25 millimeters or more will occupy a significant part of the useful space in the house or apartment. To preserve the height of the rooms, thinner, synthetic-based foams are widely used - their structure is characterized by a large number of air bubbles. It is well suited for soundproofing the floor.
Membrane materials are also widespread - it is plywood, cardboard, special fabrics. The membrane will be a reliable protection from noise - when passing through the membrane, the sound wave loses its energy.
In the manufacture of standard floor construction, protected from noise, for example, under the screed, you can use the following types of materials.
This is a rolled “Akufleks” - with a floor sound insulation thickness of 12 millimeters and a sound insulation index of 26 dBA, the coupler will be 65 millimeters thick. The material “Shumanet-Hydro” has an index of 24 dBA. And the thickness of the screed as a result will be the same. “Schumanet-Combi” is slightly better - 25 dBA. “Shumostop” is able to reduce the level of impact and structural noise - the index is 40 dBA and 10, respectively, the thickness of the tie will be 80 millimeters. With laminate you can apply sound insulation to the floor “Trocellen acoustics.” Having a small thickness, the substrate has high performance.
A damping layer is also required, which will dampen structural noise and vibrations. It separates the tie along its perimeter. To do this, use tape "Vibrostek", "Knauf", "Sanpol.
Sound insulation materials
Various elastic noise insulation materials designed for installation under a concrete screed, are able to deal with structural and airborne noise. They withstand high loads without any significant deformations.
Materials for sound insulation of the floor are divided into bituminous, needle-punched, rubber, as well as foamed. Cork rubber materials are also available. Some can protect not only from noise, but also from moisture. This should be considered when pouring concrete screed.
Sound absorbing materials
Absorbent sound insulation of the floor in the apartment should always have a porous structure. Cells should not be closed. Materials in this group have a very low density. This can be dangerous because the coupler will squeeze due to operational loads.
When wet, the materials of this category almost completely or very lose their characteristics. When laying, they must be insulated from moisture and steam. But by default, these materials have heat-insulating properties. However, in the urban high-rise buildings, additional thermal insulation is not necessary.
Among the absorbing materials can be distinguished basalt and fiberglass wool. These are the plates "Akuflor" and "Shumostop".
Unlike sound-insulating and sound-absorbing, this category of materials is applied along the perimeter under the screed. This production process vertical enclosing structures. On sale there are tapes from polymers, rubber, latex.
When the material is selected and purchased, you can do installation work. Depending on the type of floor, the device soundproofing the floor will be different. Consider typical solutions.
"Floating" screed is made when parallel to the water floor heating is installed. Soundproofing will be arranged as follows. Sound absorbing material is laid on the floor slab. Then make a layer of waterproofing material. Next poured reinforced screed. The walls around the perimeter are treated with silicone sealant.
For soundproofing the floor under the laminate or other flooring first thing stack the selected material. Then along the perimeter, additional strips are laid so that the screed cannot contact the walls.The top layer is treated with waterproofing compounds. Then they mount the reinforcement and wire the crosshairs. Next, the reinforcement grate rises several centimeters above the sound-proof material and is installed on stands.
Then it remains to make a concrete solution and begin to fill the screed. The surface is leveled with plastering tools. After completion, you need to wait for the complete drying of the solution. This can take up to one month.
To enhance the effect of sound insulation, as well as for sound insulation of the floor under the laminate, special substrates and cork coverings are placed under the laminate under the topcoat.
This is a good analogue of the concrete screed. With the help of filling with small clay can get a good result. Many masters recommend using just such a technology.
Sound-proof materials are placed on the surface of the slab - it is better to use cork coatings, membranes based on bitumen polymer. This will avoid subsiding the surface of the floor. Then pour a layer of expanded clay. It is important to well tamp and level the resulting surface.Then stack gypsum fiberboard or chipboard. Then you can mount the finish coating.
You can simplify the device soundproofing floor. If the repair budget, the panel of plaster or wood chips are placed directly on the sound insulation. At the same time, it is necessary to understand that the effect will decrease by 40 percent or more.
We use frame floors
In contrast to the "floating", the frame structure is less protected from vibration noise, but more reliable from air noise. To perform sound insulation of the floor under the laminate or other finishing coatings, you can use the following technology.
The first step is lags. Their section should be 100 x 50 millimeters. Lags are installed on the stove. The distance between them lags should be approximately 40 centimeters. Under them put pieces of rubber - this will reduce the transmission of vibrations. Insulating material is laid between the lags so that there is no empty space. Next, carry out the installation of boards or chipboard. It is important not to forget about the gap between the plates and the wall. Then you can proceed to the installation of the finishing coating.
This solution is perfect for soundproofing the floor of the second floor in a private house. Although if the house is brick, it is safer to make a concrete screed.
If the laminate is chosen as the finishing flooring, then during its installation it is necessary to use special substrates. They are made of polyester. This will significantly improve the sound insulation characteristics of the floor.
Here's how to make sound insulation of the floor during the manufacture of parquet, repairs or capital construction. As you can see, this operation can be carried out independently. Do not doubt, the result will exceed all expectations.