Sea border of Russia. Borders of the Russian Federation

Russia is the largest country in the worldthe globe. Its area reaches 17.1 million square meters. The state is located on the Eurasian mainland. Russia has a long stretch from west to east, so there is a significant time difference in its regions.

Sea border of Russia

Borders of the Russian Federation

Customs, economic and other borders of Russiawere taken outside the former USSR, which in itself is a unique phenomenon. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, all the CIS countries faced a serious problem. On the one hand, the inconsistency of legislative and financial systems forced them to close the economic space, but the new border lines of states did not coincide with ethnic cultural borders, and the society did not want to recognize the imposed border restrictions, and most importantly, Russia did not have the opportunity in such a short period demarcation and equip engineering facilities. Also the big problem was the establishment of customs points.

Description of state boundaries

The length of the borders of Russia reaches 60 thousandkilometers, of which 40 thousand km are on the sea borders. The economic sea space of the country is located 370 kilometers from the coastal zone. There may be courts of other states for the extraction of natural resources. The western and southern borders of the Russian Federation - mainly land, the northern and eastern - mostly marine. The fact that Russia's state borders are so long is due to the huge size of its territory and the uneven outlines of the lines of the sea coasts of the Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic oceans, which wash it from three sides.

Borders of the Russian Federation

Land borders of Russia

In the west and east of the country, land bordershave a number of characteristic differences. In pre-revolutionary Russia, they were designated by natural boundaries. As the state expanded, it was necessary somehow to fix the boundaries of the seas and land. At the same time in sparsely populated areas for greater recognition they should be clearly marked - it can be a mountain range, a river and so on. But this kind of terrain is observed mainly from the eastern side of the southern border.

Western and south-western land borders of the state

Modern lines of western and south-western bordersRussia emerged as a result of the division of individual entities on the territory of the country. To a large extent, these are administrative borders, which were previously intrastate. They were virtually unrelated to natural objects. Thus, Russia's borders with Poland and Finland were formed.

Maritime boundaries

The land borders of Russia also have a largeextent. After the collapse of the union, the number of neighbors remained the same. There are fourteen in total. With Japan and the US, Russia has only sea borders. But in the days of the USSR the country bordered only with eight states, the remaining lines between states were considered internal and had a conditional character. In the north-west border of the Russian Federation are in contact with Finland and Norway.

State status has already been formally receivedborders of Russia with Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. Along the western and south-western border are Ukraine and Belarus. The southern part of the country borders with Georgia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, the republics of Tuva, Altai, Buryatia. In the extreme south-east Primorsky Krai borders on the DPRK. The length of the border line is only 17 km.

The northern border of the country

Russia's maritime border in the north and east of the countryis located 12 miles from the coastline. By sea, the Russian Federation borders on 12 states. The northern borders pass through the waters of the Arctic Ocean - the Kara Sea, the Laptev Sea, the Barents Sea, the East Siberian Sea and the Chukchi Sea. Within the Arctic Ocean, from the Russian coasts to the North Pole, the Arctic sector is located. It is limited by conditional lines from the west of the Rybachiy Peninsula and the east of Ratmanov Island to the North Pole. Polar possessions are a relative concept, and the territorial waters of this sector of Russia do not belong, we can only talk about the ownership of the water area of ​​the Arctic waters.

Borders of States

Eastern Russian border

The sea border of Russia from its eastern partpasses through the seas of the Pacific Ocean. From this side the nearest neighbors of the country are the USA and Japan. With Japan, the Russian Federation borders on the Strait of La Perouse, and in the Bering Strait - with the USA (between the Ratmanov Island, which is Russian, and Kruzenstern, belonging to the States). Between the peninsulas of Chukotka, Alaska, Kamchatka and the Aleutian Islands, the Bering Sea is located. Between the peninsulas of Kamchatka, the islands of Hokkaido, Kuril Islands and Sakhalin is the Sea of ​​Okhotsk.

The southern coast of Sakhalin and the Maritime Territory are washedThe Japanese Sea. All the seas of the Far East, with which Russia has a maritime boundary, partially freeze. Moreover, Okhotsk, even with the fact that part of it lies in the southern parallel, is the most severe in this respect. In its northwestern part, the duration of the ice period is 280 days per year. Due to the long length of the seas along the eastern line of Russia from north to south, climatic conditions in the country vary significantly.

In the summer time, the waters of the Sea of ​​Japantyphoons, which are fraught with great destruction. On the Pacific coast in its seismically active zones there are catastrophic tsunamis that occur as a result of coastal and underwater earthquakes.

Sea border of Russia on the map

Problems of the eastern border of Russia

The maritime borders of Russia and the United States are now designated,but earlier there were border problems. The Russian Empire in 1867 sold Alaska for seven million dollars. There are certain difficulties in defining the state borders in the Bering Strait. There are problems with Russia and with Japan, which disputes the islands of the Lesser Kuril chain, the total area of ​​which is 8548.96 square meters. km. The dispute arose about the state water area and the territory of the Russian Federation with an area of ​​three hundred thousand square kilometers, including for the economic zone of the sea and islands, which is rich in seafood and fish, and for the shelf zone with oil reserves.

Russia has a maritime boundary

In 1855 an agreement was concluded, in accordance withwith which the islands of the Lesser Kuril chain were preserved beyond Japan. In 1875, Japan passed all the Kuril Islands. In 1905, following the Russo-Japanese War, the Portsmouth Treaty was concluded, and Russia lost to Southern Sakhalin. In 1945, when Japan signed the act of unconditional surrender, Sakhalin Island and the Kuril Islands became part of the USSR, but their statehood was not defined and in the treaty of 1951 (San Francisco). The Japanese side claimed that the South Kuril Islands are part of Japan and they have nothing to do with the treaty of 1875, since they are not part of the Kuril chain, but belong to the Japanese Islands, and therefore the operation of the treaty signed in San Francisco , it does not apply to them.

Western border of the state

The western maritime border of Russia connects the countrywith many states of Europe. It passes through the waters of the Baltic Sea, which belongs to the waters of the Atlantic Ocean and forms bays off the coast of the Russian Federation. They have Russian ports. In the Gulf of Finland is the northern capital of Russia - St. Petersburg - and Vyborg. On the flowing into the Vistula Lagoon the Prelog is Kaliningrad. Large Novoluzhsky port is being built at the mouth of the Luga River. The Baltic Sea does not freeze just off the coast of the Kaliningrad region. This sea border of Russia on the map connects the country (across the sea) with such states as Poland, Germany and Sweden.

South-western border

The southwestern part of Russia is washed by watersThe Azov, Caspian and Black Seas. The maritime borders of the Black Sea give Russia access to the Mediterranean. The port of Novorossiysk stands on the banks of the Tsemess bay. In Taganrog Bay - the port of Taganrog. In the city of Sevastopol is one of the best bays. The Azov and Black Seas are of great importance for Russia's transport links with the countries of Europe and the Mediterranean. Also, the maritime borders of the Russian Federation are in contact with Georgia and Ukraine. In the south, along the waters of the Caspian Sea, there is a border with Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan.

Sea borders of the Black Sea

Consequently, the boundaries of the Russian Federation to a greater extentpass through natural boundaries: mountains, seas and rivers. Due to some of them, international contacts (high mountains, glaciers on the sea and so on) are complicated. Others, on the contrary, are favorable for cooperation with neighbors and allow laying river and land international routes, creating an economic space.

Extreme points of Russia

In the northern part, the extreme point is the capeChelyuskin, which is located on the Taimyr Peninsula. The extreme island point is Cape Fligeli, which is located on one of the islands of the Franz Josef Archipelago - Rudolph. The extreme southern point is the crest of the Caucasian ridge, the western is the finiteness of the Sandy Spit of the Baltic Sea, the eastern one is Cape Dezhnev on the Chukchi Peninsula.

Features of the geographical location of Russia

Most of the country is in moderatelatitudes, but its northern part is located in the harsh conditions of the Arctic. The territory of Russia is rich in a variety of natural resources, which are available in large quantities. The country occupies a leading place in the world in terms of size and area of ​​land resources. The area of ​​Russian forests reaches seven hundred million hectares.

The huge size of the country is very important aseconomic point of view, and with the defense. The territory of the Russian Federation has the longest plains on the planet. This is the West Siberian and Russian (East European) plains. The air masses of the Arctic Ocean influence the northern areas of the country. The territory of Russia is rich in various minerals and minerals. It is here that approximately 40% of all world reserves of iron ores are concentrated. The main area of ​​deposits and rich reserves of copper ore is the Urals and the Urals. Here, in the Middle Urals, there are deposits of precious stones, such as emerald, ruby, amethyst. And another interesting feature of the country is that it is located in all geographical zones of the northern hemisphere, with the exception of the tropics.

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