Russian wood industry
The timber and woodworking industry is one of the oldest sectors of the Russian economy. They have a rather complex structure. The timber and woodworking industry is an industrial complex associated with the harvesting and processing of lumber.
Conventionally, the forest industry can be divided into four categories. These include, in particular, the chemical industry - the production of turpentine, coal. The complex includes a pulp and paper and woodworking industry. The first is the chemical processing of lumber, paper, cardboard and others. The woodworking industry includes a complex of various actions. They are associated with mechanical and chemical-mechanical processing. The most common branches of the woodworking industry are lumber production, plate and furniture manufacturing.The fourth group includes a complex for the procurement of raw materials.
Russian wood industry: specialization
As mentioned above, this complex includes measures for the mechanical and chemical-mechanical processing of the material. There are various professions in the woodworking industry. For example, mechanical processing is carried out by machine operators of different specializations. These include, in particular:
- Sawing machines. They serve tape and circular saws, monitor their work, accept and serve the workpiece. After work, sawing machines clean the equipment.
- Machine operators of edging machines produce cutting boards in the longitudinal direction into elements of different widths.
- Masters of drilling equipment make holes in the details.
- Tokars grind out a variety of items from the workpiece.
- Masters of milling and copying equipment made on the copiers details with a complex profile.
- Workers tenoning machines cut eyes and spikes.
- Planing equipment wizards service reysmusovy and fugovalnye units. They planed the edges of the planks and bars, cut the details in size by thickness, fugulate straight edges.
Machine operators need to know the technology, device and setup of the machine and GOST, to be able to read diagrams and drawings. Regulation, adjustment and repair of equipment is carried out by adjusters. At the advanced enterprises work machines semi-automatic and automatic. They are processed without the participation of people. Several machines are connected in technological lines. Preparations on such conveyors are received and delivered from the machine to the machine by special loading and unloading automatic mechanisms. On such lines, workers are equipment operators. Carpentry specializations are quite common: furniture maker, veneer, grinder, assembler and others.
The woodworking industry in Russia has been around for a long time. As an industrial complex, it was formed at the beginning of the 18th century. The woodworking industry reached the highest intensity by the mid-19th century. Along with the material cut, factory-made furniture, match straw and plywood appeared. So, from 1900 to 1913, the domestic sawnwood production increased from 7.7 to 14.2 million cubic meters.Nevertheless, despite this growth, the woodworking industry was technically at a relatively low level, lagging behind some developed countries, especially in the field of manufacturing complex products. Three quarters of the cost of products in the pre-revolutionary period were lumber. In the years 1914-1918 before the First World War, relatively large and well-equipped woodworking enterprises were formed. This, in particular, plants in Onega, Arkhangelsk.
The development of the woodworking industry in the USSR
In the period of the pre-war five-year plans from 1929 to 1940, progress was directly connected with the growth of capital construction, furniture, engineering and other production, as well as the output of consumer goods. The woodworking industry, the enterprises of which began to be formed almost everywhere, began to develop actively. Thus, specialized factories were built for the production of window covers and doors. This, in particular, Lopatinsky, Bobruisk, Elshansky and other plants. Finishing and match factories, house-building plants with automated production were formed.Specialized construction yards (ancillary plants) were established at large sites.
World crisis of 2008-2009
He had a very negative impact on the economy of the Russian Federation. This is confirmed by statistical calculations, according to which the production in different areas suffered significant losses. The woodworking industry was also in a rather difficult situation. Many factories and mills underwent a wave of reductions, thousands of employees were left without work. In connection with the crisis in European countries, wood exports have declined significantly. As a result, a large number of warehouses were overloaded with unclaimed goods. In the branches of the woodworking industry of the Russian Federation, production volumes have decreased.
Positive sides of the crisis
Nevertheless, despite the decline in volumes, the production of material for magazines and books, cardboard, plates not only did not decrease, but also increased. Demand and the sector engaged in the production of furniture. These products are regularly received from hotels, restaurants, offices and other enterprises. It should be said that the crisis had not only a negative, but also a positive effect.In particular, during this period, competition intensified, due to which product quality increased. In addition, the level of service has been given much more attention. This has benefited not only consumers, but also manufacturing companies. Due to the fact that the woodworking industry depends quite strongly on the state in which the world market resides, it takes a lot of time to restore it.
Today there is an active development of the woodworking industry. This area is at one of the highest levels in the state economy. This is due to the fact that at all times of its existence, this sector produced a large number of products, which brought a large income. Russia accounts for a quarter of all forest reserves in the world. Stimulating the processing of raw materials at the state level will accelerate the pace of progress in this sector. Today the task is to build economic potential. Special attention is paid to the introduction of innovative technologies. Planned growth and improvement of the production process at Selenginsky CCC.Equally important is the use of modern equipment, which allows the use of raw materials in a complex and minimize costs. Planned adjustments and the structure of the sector. The combines and factories are tasked with more accelerated development.
To date, the quality of wood products has improved significantly. This was facilitated by the improvement of means and methods of processing. At the same time, the cost of the final product has decreased. Equally important is the change in the geography of the industry. Formerly, the developed countries used to logging, but today the countries that have not reached this level act as suppliers, although they do not produce finished products on their own.
Characteristic features of the woodworking industry in Russia and other countries are considered to be active development and anticipated prospects. This, in turn, provokes poaching and uncontrolled logging. As a result, the area of greenery is significantly reduced.Environmentalists urge the state to pay attention to this problem, taking it under close scrutiny. About 0.5 billion tons of biological mass is harvested in the forest industry annually. Only a quarter of this volume goes into production. Not used bark, twigs, needles. Finished products are made only from 11% of raw materials.
In addition, the timber sector faced the following difficulties:
- Uncontrolled increase in the cost of fuel.
- Problems of logistics and transport. This also includes the commercialization of enterprises serving the forest and woodworking industry, which resulted in an increase in the final price of products.
- Problems of regulation of rental relations, as well as the organization of auctions for the right to lease green space in terms of the legislative framework.
- The lack of a competent methodology for the selection of investment projects in the sector of the timber industry.
- Inconsistency with foreign countries on the regulatory framework governing foreign economic relations.