Refrigerator: do it yourself repair. How to repair a refrigerator at home
A refrigerator is a collection of devices that are necessary for the formation of a refrigeration cycle. As a result, the temperature in the chamber decreases and is maintained at this level for a certain time. In general, it is difficult to imagine our life without a refrigerator. But they are all different, both according to the principle of action, and according to the device. Let's talk about how the refrigerator works. DIY repair - this is what we will focus on in this article.
General information and concepts
The working substance, in our case it is freon, boils at low temperatures. The principle of operation of any refrigeration equipment is based on this effect. At the same time, Freon absorbs heat from the environment. There is a sealed chamber. It is up to a certain level still at the factory filled with a refrigerant (freon).In the process of equipment operation, its quantity is constant in case the chamber is tight. In the process of lowering the temperature, only the physical state of the refrigerant changes: it changes from liquid to vapor and then back to liquid. In general, the refrigerator, which we will repair with our own hands, is a very complex structure. It may seem that it is unlikely that any node will be repaired by itself, but in reality this is not the case. If you look, then there are typical damage that occurs most often. Domestic craftsmen have long figured out what was happening, and shared it with the rest.
Agree, before you go to disassemble the refrigerator, you need to deal with the problem. Sometimes it is not necessary to remove the motor-compressor, as the problem may lie elsewhere. So, diagnosis is the very first thing you should do. There are practically no difficulties here. If the equipment does not freeze or freezes, but does not create a sufficiently low temperature for storing food, then you should pay attention to the violation of the adjustment or to the compressor.It is quite possible depressurization and leakage of freon.
If the equipment simply does not turn on, then there are several solutions to the problem. For example, there is a banal problem, which is the lack of power. It is enough to replace the cable, plug or socket, and everything will be fine. In other cases, the problems lie in the failure of the thermostat or other equipment. In principle, we will no longer talk in general about what a refrigerator is. Do-it-yourself repair is definitely worth mentioning.
What to do if the equipment does not turn on?
We begin, perhaps, with the most common problem. As noted above, there are banal cases when the plug goes out or the cable is bent over. But it happens very, very rarely. You have to agree that the refrigerator costs itself and is standing - and suddenly the mice have bite off the cable. It is unlikely that such a scenario is likely. And for the mice nothing good will end. Therefore, we will not consider such cases.
A problem that occurs quite often, but is not so easily diagnosed, is a problem with the power grid. For normal operation of refrigeration equipment, a voltage of at least 190-220 V is required.If, say, due to a breakdown on the line, the voltage is less than the allowable, the refrigerator will simply not be able to start. You can solve this problem by installing a stabilizer. If you have a voltmeter at home, plug it in and take readings. This case should not be considered as a breakdown, because the protective mechanism works.
If nothing helps
It is worth noting that the repair of refrigerators "Atlant", "Stinol", "Indesit" and other popular models may also be required for the following reason. The fact is that such equipment has a special defrost button. It often falls or fails for other reasons. In any case, this leads either to the fact that there is no opportunity to defrost, or, conversely, it is impossible to cancel defrosting. In any case, the solution to the problem is to replace the damaged button. To do this, you must remove the old one, which you can do with a minimum set of tools, and install a new one.
We all buy refrigeration equipment in the expectation that it will work for quite some time. It often happens. But one day we notice the lack of cold in the chamber. It may well be that for many years of operation, contacts have become oxidized and they need to be cleaned.
Electrical circuit test
As noted above, if the equipment is used for too long and moisture has gotten to its terminals to some extent, then it is likely that the compounds have oxidized and do not have electrical contact. In this case, it is enough to carry out an elementary stripping of the terminals, after which the working capacity will be restored.
In order to quickly detect the problem, we need the electrical circuit of the refrigerator. With its help, we carry out dialing equipment. If it turns out that the starting relay is defective, there is no sense in repairing it. It is advisable to immediately buy a new one and put it in its place. But pay special attention to positioning. Before changing the relay, check the motor winding for resistance. If there is a break, it must be removed and only then install the starting relay.
Repair of refrigerators "Indesit", "Atlant" and others
It should be noted that domestic refrigerators, as well as from neighboring countries, say, Ukrainian or Belarusian, have approximately the same problems. In most cases, they consist in the fact that the refrigerator either does not freeze or freezes too much. Fortunately, the repair of refrigerators Atlant, Indesit, Biryusa, etc.performed almost identical.
So, in most cases, the problem associated with the lack of cold in the chamber appears due to the leakage of freon from the compressor. As a rule, such a leak can be noticed by eye. If this could not be done, we proceed as follows. Through a special tube on the compressor (it is usually sealed) we pump out freon. Instead, we pump in air at a slight pressure. By hissing the air from the gap, you can quickly find a leak. Here you will need a soldering iron, since there is no other way to handle the hole in the tube. After everything is done, you can pump the freon back, always in full.
Replacing the thermostat in the refrigerator
The lack of cold in the chamber can be associated with a relay failure. To check whether this is the case, we proceed as follows. Cut the wires leading from the plug to the relay and from the relay to the refrigerator. After this we close them together. If the equipment began to function, then we found a problem and can fix it. Repair work in this case is usually limited to replacing the old thermal switch with a new one. There is nothing complicated about it.But the electrical circuit of the refrigerator will be very useful. First, study it and then get to work. In general, almost all equipment is repaired in the same way. The relay is in one place in all models, both in domestic and foreign. But repair of refrigerators "Indesit" due to the weakening of frost in the chamber in most cases is associated with the freezing of the channels, which serve to supply and exhaust air. In this case, you will help the usual defrost.
What to do if products are not frozen?
It often happens that the diagnosis did not reveal any malfunctions. But not because they hid somewhere deep, but because from the technical side they really do not exist. Often, problems with freezing products lie in the fact that the compressor works fine, but the cold in the chamber is still not enough. Often, such illnesses occur already in the technology, which has been in operation for several years. The point here is most likely in rubber gaskets between the doors and the camera. It happens that they do not seal the refrigeration compartment properly, because of the gap there is a depressurization and leakage of the cold produced by the compressor.Repair of household refrigerators in this case is quite simple and fast. We go to the store and buy new rubber circuits. Old ones are deleted, and new ones are set. For their landing, you can use glue or epoxy resin. After that, the problem should be solved, and soon your products will freeze.
Is it freezing too much?
As it turns out, repair of household refrigerators, which were incorrectly adjusted by the craftsmen, is often required. Speaking simply, the factory temperature is broken, and the refrigerator chamber will no longer have the usual +2 degrees, but all -2. In this case, it is not necessary to look for a new compressor for the refrigerator and blame this element for all the troubles, because most often the case is completely different. The relay is the problem. Unfortunately, it is not possible to perform adjustment work independently, therefore a specialist will be needed. But, as practice shows, a change in temperature occurs not immediately, but after a certain period of operation of equipment. This suggests that the element has failed and the factory settings have nothing to do with it. But if we changed the refrigerator relay, but this did not help, then the matter is somewhat more serious.
On the elimination of noise and vibrations
A severe freezing effect may also occur due to refrigerant leakage. This is extremely rare, as often the compressor begins to freeze worse, but still this phenomenon is observed in some cases. But we have already figured out that in this case it is necessary to process the compressor for the refrigerator, it is not necessary to change it at all.
There are also other problems that significantly impair the operational characteristics of the equipment, but are not critical and are resolved with their own hands. For example, noise and rattling during operation indicates that the cooling unit is installed incorrectly and the electric motor cannot function normally. This problem should not be taken for granted, because modern models are almost completely silent. Removing excess noise and vibration is simple. We take the construction level and expose the equipment.
Another common cause of breakdowns is that the protective relay of the refrigerator is not positioned correctly. In this case, it must be installed correctly, according to the scheme. By the way, the same applies to the starting relay, which works on the principle of plate heating and gravity. The unit must be mounted strictly according to the instructions. Install it upside down - and there will be trouble.It can even go as far as damage to the compressor, which is not very cheap to change.
If there is an unpleasant smell, it also indicates a technical malfunction. Often the problem lies in the fact that after a while the drain pipe is clogged. Clean up the phone quickly and easily. For this, it can be blown through with compressed air or rinsed. After that, the problem should be fixed.
Difficult but possible
Here we are with you and figured out how the refrigerator works and recovers in the event of a malfunction. DIY repair at home is possible in most cases. I would like to say even more: sometimes it is simply necessary to do such things. So you can get a precious experience that you can use in the future. Of course, there are various modifications and generations of refrigeration equipment. Single-chamber, two-chamber, etc. All of them are different. But the principle of such technology is always the same. This is a compressor that drives a refrigerant around the circuit. In this case, a constant temperature is maintained with the help of automation. There is also a system of tubes through which air passes.If one of them is clogged, the forced circulation becomes difficult, which causes various problems.
In general, if you use a voltage regulator, then problems with the electrician should arise. If dust or metal particles get into the compressor, it will have to be changed. In this case, washing and purging are unlikely to help. Here the situation is similar to air conditioning.
Thus, this is all that can be told about the refrigerator. Do-it-yourself repair often doesn’t mean much difficulty, the main thing is to get to work, have schemes on hand and act carefully.