President Yeltsin: years of government and results
Boris Yeltsin was the first President of Russia. He was a strong leader, although he made many tactical blunders at his post. Eight years, this man led a huge country and tried to bring it out of crisis.
Job in Moscow
In 1968, Boris Yeltsin began his party career. A graduate of the Kirov Ural Polytechnic University became the head of the construction department. Successes in the political service provided him a quick breakthrough in his career. In 1984, Boris Nikolayevich was already a member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. From 1985–1987 served as First Secretary of the Moscow City Committee of the CPSU.
In 1987, at a plenary session of the Supreme Council, he criticized the activities of the current leader, Mikhail Gorbachev. He was demoted to the position of deputy head of Gosstroy. In 1989, Yeltsin became a people's deputy of the Armed Forces of the USSR.
In 1990 he became chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR.
1991 Presidential Election
March 17, 1991 a referendum was held in the USSR.On the agenda were the question of the introduction of the presidency and an item on preserving the status of the USSR. Purposeful and uncompromising, Boris Yeltsin decided to run for president. His competitors in this race were pro-government candidate Nikolai Ryzhkov and Vladimir Zhirinovsky.
On June 12, 1991, the first presidential election took place. B. N. Yeltsin was elected by a majority of votes. The years of rule of the first leader of Russia were originally supposed to be 5 years. Since the country was in a deep political and economic crisis, no one knew how long in real life the new president would last in his chair. A.Rutskaya was elected Vice-President. He and Yeltsin were supported by the Democratic Russia bloc.
July 10, 1991, Boris Yeltsin gave the oath to serve his people faithfully and faithfully. Mikhail Gorbachev remained president of the USSR. The dual power did not suit the ambitious Yeltsin, although many researchers and politicians claim that the collapse of the Soviet Union was the ultimate goal of the new Russian leader. Perhaps it was a political order that he brilliantly executed.
Years of government B.Yeltsin was marked by significant unrest at the top of the state. The CPSU members did not want a change of leadership and understood that with the advent of the new leader, the collapse of the USSR and their removal from power were not far off. Yeltsin spoke out with harsh criticism of the nomenklatura circles, repeatedly accused senior executives of corruption.
Gorbachev and President Yeltsin, whose reign was unstable, discussed the key moments of their cooperation and decided to eliminate the USSR by political means. To this end, it was decided to create a confederation - the Union of Sovereign Soviet Republics. On August 20, this document should have been signed by the leaders of all the Union republics.
The State Emergency Committee launched its activities August 18-21, 1991. During Gorbachev’s stay in Crimea, a temporary state body of the Emergency Committee was created, and a state of emergency was introduced in the country. This was reported to the public by radio. Democratic forces led by Yeltsin and Rutsky began to confront the old party top.
The conspirators had some support in the army and the KGB. They pulled up some separate groups of troops to enter them in the capital. Meanwhile, President of the RSFSR Yeltsin was on a business trip.Opponents of the collapse of the Union decided to detain him upon arrival as far as possible from the White House. Other couplers decided to go to Gorbachev, persuade him to enter the state of emergency by his decree and appeal to the people.
On August 19, the media announced the resignation of M. Gorbachev for health reasons, and. about. President Gennady Yanayev was appointed.
Yeltsin and his supporters supported the opposition radio Ekho Moskvy. The Alpha squad arrived at the President’s dacha, but there was no decree to block him or take him into custody, so Boris Nikolayevich was able to mobilize all his supporters.
Yeltsin arrives at the White House, and local meetings begin in Moscow. Simple democratically minded citizens are trying to oppose the Emergency Committee. Protesters built barricades on the square and dismantled paving stones. To the square drove tanks without ammunition and 10 BRMD.
On the 21st, mass clashes began, three citizens were killed. The conspirators were arrested, and Boris Yeltsin, whose reign was tense from the very beginning, dissolved the CPSU and nationalized the property of the party. The plan for the coup failed.
As a result, in December 1991, in secret from Mikhail Gorbachev, the Belovezhskaya agreements were signed, which marked the end of the USSR and gave rise to the new independent republics.
In September 1993, former comrades fell out. Boris N. Yeltsin, whose reign was very difficult in the initial period, understood that the opposition in the person of Vice-President A. Rutskoi and the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR in every way impedes new economic reforms. In this regard, B. Yeltsin issued a decree 1400 - on the dissolution of the Armed Forces. It was decided on a new election to the Federal Assembly.
Naturally, such a monopolization of power caused a protest among members of the Armed Forces. As usual, equipment was driven to the capital, people were taken to the streets. They tried to impeach the president several times, but Yeltsin ignored the law. Supporters of the Armed Forces broke up, opposition leaders were arrested. As a result of the clashes, according to various sources, about 200 people died, more than a thousand were injured and wounded.
After the victory of B. Yeltsin and his supporters in Russia there was a transitional period of dictatorship of the president. All the authorities linking Russia with the USSR were eliminated.
Socio-economic reforms of B. Yeltsin
Many economists and politicians, looking back on the years of Yeltsin’s rule in Russia, call his policy chaotic and senseless. There was no single clear plan in it.The first few years, the state was in general in a political crisis, which eventually turned into a 1993 coup.
Many of the ideas of the president and his supporters were promising, but, embodying them in the old monopolized system, Yeltsin ran into many pitfalls. As a result, the reform of the state led to a protracted crisis in the economic sphere, the loss of people's deposits and the complete distrust of power.
The main reforms of President Yeltsin:
- price liberalization; free market;
- land reform - the transfer of land in private hands;
- reforming political power.
First Chechen War
In 1991, an independent Republic of Ichkeria was formed on the territory of Chechnya. This state of affairs did not suit Russia. Dzhokhar Dudayev became the president of the new independent republic. The Russian Supreme Court declared the election invalid. The victory of the separatist forces led to the collapse of the Chechen-Ingush Republic. Ingushetia decided to remain autonomous within Russia. Based on this desire, Boris Yeltsin, whose years of rule were already washed by rivers of blood, decided to send troops during the 1992 Ossetian-Ingush conflict. Chechnya was in fact an independent, unrecognized state.On the territory of the country was actually a civil war. In 1994, Yeltsin decided to send troops to restore order in the Chechen People's Republic. As a result, the armed conflict with the use of Russian troops lasted two years.
The second presidential term was extremely difficult for B. Yeltsin. First, constant heart problems affected, and secondly, the country was on the verge of a crisis, which the “ill” president could not cope with. The newly elected president made a bet on "political youth" in the person of Chubais and Nemtsov. Their active implementation of the reform course did not lead to the expected increase in GDP, the country lived through multibillion-dollar loans. In 1998, Yeltsin, whose reign was not successful for the state, began to look for a successor. They became an unknown chief of the FSB - V. Putin.
In 1998, the “sand” economy of B. Yeltsin collapsed. Default, price increases, job cuts, total instability, the halt of large enterprises. The virtual market economy could not stand the harsh realities. Having chosen a worthy candidate for his post and enlisted V.Putin about his comfortable old age, the first President of Russia, speaking in front of the viewers, resigned.