Nizhny Novgorod: what federal district, area, population. Volga Federal District
At the confluence of the large water arteries of the central part of Russia - the Volga and the Oka - there is a million-plus city - Nizhny Novgorod. What is the federal district here, what is the area and population of the city, what are the features of the economy - the article will tell everything.
History of the city
The settlements in these places were formed by Finno-Ugric tribes, and then they were gradually ousted by the Slavs. The bank of the Volga was occupied by the Erzyan settlements belonging to the Mordovian ethnos.
The city of Nizhny Novgorod was founded in 1921 by the Russian prince Yury Vsevolodovich. A hundred years later, a new urban entity became the capital of the Novgorod-Suzdal principality.
During the campaigns on Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod was an outpost, the last city when sending warriors to enemies.
Important role of the city in the Time of Troubles.The Nizhny Novgorod militia, led by Minin and Pozharsky, helped liberate Moscow from the Polish interventionists.
In 1714, as a result of the reforms of Peter I, Novgorod became a provincial city and began to develop rapidly. Under Alexander III, Nizhny became the center of the Russian merchants. Then, in the 19th century, the largest fair of the Russian Empire was moved there, which made the city also a center of trade.
In Soviet times, Nizhny began to rapidly develop its industry. He was then renamed Gorky. A large automobile plant was built - a real auto giant. Metal processing, engineering, and information technology enterprises were also established.
Nizhny Novgorod is located in the center of the European part of Russia at the confluence of two large rivers - the Volga and Oka. The favorable geographical position makes this place an important transportation hub and shopping center. Over its history, the city was destroyed several times, but each time it was reborn from the ashes like a phoenix. It was and remains an important economic, cultural, religious center of our country.
It is the center of the Nizhny Novgorod region and the administrative center of the Volga Federal District. That is why confusion often arises about Nizhny Novgorod - which federal district is this and which region. The city is the center of two municipalities.
Nizhny is also one of the key areas of river tourism. There are also developed mountain tourism, because in the area there are numerous ski slopes.
The coat of arms of Nizhny Novgorod was created in 1781. It is a heraldic shield, which depicts a deer, a crown on top. The emblem is framed around the perimeter with a ribbon of the Order of Lenin. The crown represents development, the achievements of the city, which has become an important cultural and political center in the region. The deer on the coat of arms of Nizhny Novgorod is a symbol of wisdom, purity, and elevation. And the tape was really given by Lenin to the city for merits.
Nizhny Novgorod: which federal district
The city is part of a region called Nizhny Novgorod region. This entity is a part of a larger administrative region - the Volga Federal District. It was formed on the basis of a presidential decree in 2000.Speaking of regional affiliation, a question often arises about Nizhny Novgorod. What federal district is here, what is it called? People often confuse the Volga FD and the Volga region. Meanwhile, these are completely different things. The Volga region is rather a geographical concept. So called all the land adjacent to the flow of the Volga. The Volga Federal District is the administrative unit of Russia. It occupies 6 percent of the total area of the state. 20% of the population of the country live in the territory of FD. The enlarged subject includes 14 republics and regions: Bashkortostan, Mari El, Mordovia, Tatarstan, Chuvashia, Udmurtia, Samara, Ulyanovsk, Saratov, Nizhny Novgorod, Penza, Orenburg, Kirov regions and Perm Krai. The capital is Nizhny Novgorod. The Volga Federal District produces almost a third of Russia's agricultural products. It also concentrates 23 percent of industrial production in the Russian Federation.
1.2 million people live within the city. It is the fifth largest city in the Russian Federation. Nizhny Novgorod agglomeration as a whole has 2 million inhabitants. This is about 2.2 percent of the total population of Russia.
Most citizens live in Avtozavodsky district (300 thousand people). Two times less inhabitants in Kanavinsky district (150 000).
Since 1992, the city’s population has been decreasing almost annually, but from 2012 to 2015 there has been an increase. The reason for the outflow of residents is the relative proximity to Moscow. The townspeople went there because of higher wages and a better standard of living.
The average age of residents is 39 years. The city has 30 long-livers, and pensioners - 358 thousand people. Large families in the city represented 3.7 thousand people. This is a thousand more than in 2009.
In recent years, there has been an increase in the birth rate (by 0.2 percent), as well as a decrease in mortality.
The population of Nizhny Novgorod is represented by a huge number of nationalities. There are more than 100 of them. Most of the population in the city are Russians. They are 95 percent.
There are also Tatars, Mordovians, Armenians, Ukrainians, Azeris, Mari, Belarusians, Chuvash, Jews and others. 0.12 percent of residents are Yezidis, belonging to the Kurdish nationality (Iraq).
Among other ethnic groups most of Nizhny Novgorod Tatars. Their 1.3 percent of the population.
The indigenous inhabitants of the local lands - Erzya and Mordovians (otherwise they are called Moksha) - in the city are about 3,550 people. This represents 0.28 percent of the city’s population. Mostly indigenous minority ethnic groups live in the area. These are Lukoyanovsky, Gaginsky, Shatkovsky districts in the south of the region.
Area and Areas
The city of Nizhny Novgorod is divided into two parts by the Oka. On the right are three districts: Prioksky, Nizhny Novgorod and Soviet. This is the so-called part of the mountain. On the left side of the Oka is the District. Sormovsky, Leninsky, Moscow, Kanavinsky and Avtozavodsky districts are located in this part. From the north, the Volga River flows along the entire city.
The area of Nizhny Novgorod is, according to various estimates, from 410 to 466 square meters. km The composition of the Nizhny Novgorod city district includes thirteen more settlements, so the numbers differ so much.