Moscow historical mosque: the history of construction, interesting facts
Moscow historical mosque is one of the Muslim temples located in the capital of Russia. The article will be devoted to its difficult history, interesting facts related to it.
Stages of construction
It is not known exactly when exactly the mosque appeared in Zamoskvorechye. It is only known that from the beginning of the 19th century, Moscow’s Muslims sought permission to build a mosque. At that time, they occupied the building of the Mohammedan prayer house.
I wonder when built Moscow historical mosque?
In 1823, the capital governor-general gave permission for the construction of a temple of stone. However, the long-awaited agreement was accompanied by a number of stringent requirements:
- Adhan was not allowed - an invitation to prayer;
- the architectural form of the building should not resemble a mosque;
- built the building could not be called a mosque.
For construction, the authorities allocated a plot in the possession of the merchant Khoshalov.Now it is Bolshaya Tatarskaya street in Moscow. 1823 and became the date of foundation of the mosque.
At first, the architecture of the building did not resemble a mosque, but rather resembled many other mansions. Later the building was repaired (in 1858). And in 1882 the building was reconstructed. The project was prepared by architect G. Ivnitsky. The reason for this was the request of the elder Salih Yerzin, who said that the number of Moscow adherents of Islam had grown, and the former mosque does not accommodate everyone.
As a result, the old building was enlarged on the facade, minarets were also built. Now the mosque could accommodate 1,500 people (instead of 300, as before).
What does the name mean?
The Moscow historical mosque in the XIX century had the status of the Cathedral. But later this status was transferred to another mosque - in Vypolzovom Lane. Since the 90s of the 20th century, the mosque described by us has acquired the name Historical, which emphasizes its oldest origin. It is believed that this mosque is the successor of the Zamoskvoretsky temple of Muslims of the XVII-XVIII centuries.
The institution functioned according to the laws of 1857, according to which only representatives of the highest clergy in mosques having the status of councils could conduct services. Therefore, the mosque and was considered cathedral.
In 1915, a stone building of a madrasah was erected near the mosque. Financing construction involved Sadek Yerzin. Today it is an administrative building.
Imam is the spiritual authority in Islam, who heads the mosque. He is also considered a consultant on faith topics. The word "Imam" itself is translated from Arabic as "the one who is ahead" (meaning during prayer).
The imams of the Moscow historical mosque were:
- S. M. Askhanov - in 1826.
- R. Ageev - from 1833 to 1868
- H. Ageev - until 1913.
- A. Shamsutdinov - from 1913 to 1936
In 1923-1925, M. Bigi (public figure and Islamic theologian) taught the fundamental principles of Islamic teaching in a mosque.
In the years of Soviet power
In 1936 there was a closure of the Moscow historical mosque. Imam was accused of anti-Soviet activities, arrested and executed.
During the years of Soviet power in the building worked:
- printing shop;
- point of civil defense;
- DOSAAF (public-state organization whose goal is to defend the country);
- military registration and enlistment office
In the 40s of the 20th century, Muslims sought to return the building of a mosque, but without success. And in 1967, at the building, minarets (towers from which all believers are called to prayer) were demolished at the order of the authorities.
Passing the building to Muslims
In the late 80s, the leaders of the Tatar community again attempted to return the complex of the Moscow Historical Mosque (the photo is presented in the article). In 1990, the building was given to a religious society of Muslims. Its leader at that time was M. Velitov.
But the printing shop located in the building of the mosque, as well as residents of nearby houses expressed protest, so the transfer process had to be postponed.
The final transfer of the temple to Muslims occurred only in 1991. In the same year, on October 17, the first namaz was held there (the canonical prayer of Islam).
In 1992 the building was renovated. Funding for this process belonged to the Moscow Embassy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
When was the Moscow Historical Mosque opened again? This happened in 1993. And in 1998, she experienced another restructuring.
The imams of the mosque in our time are:
- Kh. F. Fehretdinov.
- R. Sadekov.
- Saleh Seyfetdinov.
Muezzin (a minister calling for namaz) is Rais Haneveev. He was born in 1959 in the village of Andreevka, Nizhny Novgorod region.
Since 2000, the mosque has a charitable organization called the Historical Mosque. The areas of its activities are:
- charitable assistance to parishioners;
- issuance of fitr-sadak (alms);
- distribution of meat during Kurban-bairam;
- guardianship over shelters;
- sending literature to prisons;
- issuing food stamps to needy Muslims.
The foundation also patronizes the prayer room at the drug treatment hospital No. 17.
When the mosque operates madrasas, where they study the Islamic basics and Arabic. Supervised madrasas H. F. Fehretdinov. Study is carried out in Russian and in Tatar.
Where is the Moscow historical mosque?
As already mentioned, the mosque is located in Moscow at B. Tatarskaya Street, 28, bldg. 1, 2. This is the very heart of the Tatar community of Zamoskvorechye.
You can reach it by metro, the nearest stations are Tretyakovskaya, Novokuznetskaya. If you go by car, you need to get to the Zamoskvorechye area, to Bolshaya Tatarskaya street.
Imams of the mosque expect believers daily from 10.30 to 19.00. No pre-recording is required. Friday prayer is performed every Friday at 12.40. Any changes in the schedule laid out on the site of the mosque.