Mode of work and rest of workers. Rational mode of work and rest
Compliance with the work and rest schedule of workers during the production process is a prerequisite for maintaining not only human health, but also its high performance. So, if during the day physiologically reasonable breaks are arranged for the company's employees, this will slow down the onset of fatigue in many ways.
The need for regulated pauses
In the process of work, a person must maintain increased attention, quickly process the information received, have a certain speed when performing a particular operation, have precise coordination of movement, etc. During the day, all this can lead to overloads and overwork of the body.
It adversely affects human performance and the implementation of uniform and simplified operations on factory conveyors.Such a production process lasts in compulsory mode and requires the employee to maintain a given posture, which leads to fatigue. And it threatens:
- deterioration of immunity to infections;
- the appearance of irritability;
- the occurrence of pathologies of blood vessels and the heart.
Reducing fatigue contributes to the proper organization of work and rest in the enterprise. When developing it, it is necessary to take into account the scientifically based position on the correct rhythmic alternation of work and rest. It was developed back in 1904 by I. M. Sechenov.
The alternation of performance of official duties and breaks should be designed in such a way that one can maintain the activity of a person and his good health. All this implies a rational mode of work and rest. It is possible when creating:
- breaks for eating, cooling or heating;
- pauses during the working day;
- changing forms of activity (physical and mental);
- change of environmental factors (work at low and then at normal temperatures);
- minimal monotony of operations of the production process;
- conditions for recreation (in specially equipped premises), etc.
The rational mode of work and rest is developed taking into account fluctuations of human performance. The main objective of this schedule is to increase the period when the employee shows high production results, as well as to reduce the fatigue phase.
In order to maintain a sustainable human performance, the mode of work and rest must include micropause. Under current regulations, they should not be less than 9-15% of production time. The mode of work and rest of the enterprise necessarily includes regulated pauses not only for recreation, but also for the personal needs of the person. Their number and duration are directly dependent on the specifics of work.
So, it is important to give employees a little rest an hour before lunch and for the same time before the end of the work day. The duration of such regulated pauses is usually 10-15 minutes. Also, during the period of the greatest decline in working capacity, a person must take a ten-minute break for personal needs. The regime of work and rest for people performing heavy work should include hourly five-minute pauses.
As for the lunch break, it should be arranged in such a way that the working day is divided in half. Duration of rest for meals is in the range from 40 to 60 minutes. During this time, a person completely restores his physiological functions. All breaks provided by the company's management should be fixed in the work schedule. At the same time it is necessary to follow certain rules. Thus, the total time allotted for rest during heavy work may be in the range of 4 to 20 percent. If the employee is forced to be in nervous tension, then this figure increases to 14-25%. People of mental professions are provided with breaks within 10% of the time of the entire working day.
It is worth saying that regulated rest is the most effective. Irregular breaks as well as random downtime only disrupt the normal rhythm of work.
Varieties of rest
The break in work can be both passive and active. The first of these is important in the case when a person is busy doing heavy physical activities.These are works in the process of which there is a need for gradual transitions or for being in a standing position. During a passive pause, the person is sitting or lying.
Active recreation is recommended in those works that take place in the most favorable conditions. In this case, the person is invited to perform production gymnastics, consisting of a special set of exercises. Active recreation contributes to the most rapid restoration of vitality. This is due to the change of activity. At the same time, the energy that was spent by the working body is restored in a short period of time.
In any case, the mode of work and rest should have such pauses, the nature of which is in contrast to the nature of the employee’s work activity. After all, the alternation of mental and physical exertion is extremely important for health.
The task of optimal use of labor time is solved taking into account the specifics of the enterprise. In this case, different types of work and rest schedules can be developed. Among them: changeable and monthly, daily and weekly, as well as the longest - annual. Consider the first one.
The internal regime of work and rest of workers has a clear regulation. However, it is limited to the time of the beginning and end of the performance of official duties. The work schedule of the shift indicates the exact time of the lunch break, as well as the frequency and duration of rest pauses.
The mode of the day of work and rest depends on the specifics of the work performed. So, if a person's profession requires him to exert little physical effort and little nervous tension, then there are two breaks during a shift. One of them begins 2 hours after the start of work and lasts five minutes. The second break is arranged before the end of work (for an hour and a half). Its duration is also 5 minutes.
The mode of the day of work and rest at work with the need to apply average physical effort or at average nervous tension is somewhat different. There are also two breaks in this case, only their duration is 10 minutes each. One of them settles in after the employee has performed his duties for the first one and a half hours. At the second break a person can go no earlier than two hours before the end of the shift.
A more benign regime of work and rest is provided for those who work with great physical effort (this applies, for example, to harvesting agricultural crops) or in conditions of nervous overloads. In such cases, five-minute breaks for people are arranged after the first and second hours of work. The time for eating begins already 2.5 hours after the start of work. For such work provides a fourth break. It lasts five minutes and starts an hour after lunch. The fifth break is longer. After 2.5 hours elapsed since the meal, a person can rest 30 minutes. Also, this mode of work and rest includes time for dinner. This break lasts 30 minutes. The seventh pause in the work for people who make great physical effort, is provided an hour before the end of the shift. It lasts 10 minutes.
The specificity has a mode of work and rest of drivers. People in this profession are given a two-hour break in the middle of the working day, which should begin no later than 4 hours after their work begins.
It should be borne in mind that the schedule should not be violated.It is not allowed to transfer all the prescribed breaks to the end of the shift, and therefore, the employee’s earlier departure. It should also be remembered that too long pauses during the working day, which are within 30-40 minutes, violate the working environment. After them, it will take extra time for the person to "join" the production process.
The multi-shift regime of work and rest of working people is used by enterprises with a long production cycle. These are manufactures that produce products throughout the day. Sometimes the duration of the technological cycle is a time equal to the duration of two shifts.
At such enterprises, the mode of work and rest of a person is drawn up taking into account daily changes in his physiological functions. The most effective is the work performed in the first shift. That is why at night a person should work less. After all, it is known that at this time his working capacity decreases sharply, and according to the research conducted, the number of errors during this period increases almost twice.
At such enterprises special shift schedules are drawn up.They must comply with the natural daily regime. Between shifts, an employee is allowed to rest. Its duration must be equal to twice the time preceding this period of work. So, with eight-hour shifts, the breaks between them will be at least sixteen hours.
Such regulations include:
- development of work schedules;
- the number of days off;
- the order of alternation shifts;
- access to work on weekends and public holidays.
In drawing up the weekly regimen, it should be remembered that human performance is not a stable value. Throughout the week, it undergoes certain changes. So, after the weekend performance begins to gradually increase. We all know that Monday is the hardest day. This suggests that a person begins to work in the mode of work and rest. The highest level of performance reaches to the environment. This is the time when particularly important decisions should be made. Then performance decreases. This is due to the accumulation of fatigue in humans. Further, by Friday, performance drops sharply.A person can only restore it over the weekend.
At the enterprise one of two types of weekly regimes can be provided. According to the current legislation, the work schedule is drawn up taking into account five working days and two days off. There is also a six-day working week, in which there is a break of at least 42 hours.
This schedule is of great importance in matters of rational organization of the entire production process. Compliance with the work and rest schedule during the month provides for a certain number of shifts and hours of work. In addition to the rational organization of human resources, monthly schedules have an impact on the degree of use of machines and various equipment.
But the mode of work and rest of drivers has its own characteristics. In people of this profession, the number of hours worked during the day may exceed or, on the contrary, be less than planned. But at the same time, the total time for a month should not differ from the value established by the legislation.
Just as with the weekly mode, it is important to take into account the dynamics of human performance.However, this means that the month is not calendar, but lunar, equal to 29.53 days. The fact is that the influence of this planet on the human physiological cycles has been scientifically proven. So, in the full moon, we are subject to particular excitement. This period is dangerous to perform complex work that requires special concentration of attention. On the contrary, in the new moon, the physiological functions of the organism are noticeably weakened. At this time there is an increase in the number of accidents at work.
This schedule provides the total number of working days, shifts and hours during all twelve months. In addition, the annual regime provides for the duration and frequency of both basic and additional holidays. The days of public holidays are also taken into account.
In order to properly organize the annual mode of work and rest, it is important to schedule a vacation in time. They should be distributed in such a way as not to disrupt the normal functioning of the organization.
What other types of modes of work and rest? Some businesses use flexible working time systems.When using it, the employee is allowed to self-regulate the beginning, total duration and end of the work day. What is the main essence of this mode? With a flexible schedule, the working day at the enterprise is divided into 2 parts. One of them is fixed time. During this period, a person must be at his workplace. The second part is flexible working time. During this period, the employee has the right to choose for himself the beginning and end of the work day, but on condition that the hours used for personal needs are tested.