Ivan Alexandrovich Ilyin, philosopher: biography, books
Ilyin, Ivan Alexandrovich, whose biography is the topic of this article, was a famous Russian journalist and writer. The main place in his life was occupied by philosophy. It is known that he was a supporter of the White movement, as well as a consistent critic of the policy of the communist government in Russia. Even on his deathbed, he did not leave his ideas. The biography of this person is a collection of interesting facts and intricacies of fate. Let's take a closer look at it.
Ivan Ilyin was born in a family of nobles. The father of the boy Alexander was the godson of the emperor Alexander II himself. He worked as a barrister and a provincial secretary. In 1885 he became the owner of a huge estate "Big Glade". A little later he worked as a vowel in the Pronsk district assembly.
The mother of our hero was the Russian German Karolina Schweikert von Stadion. The girl was an ardent Lutheran and daughter collegiate adviser.In 1880 she adopted Orthodoxy. The wedding took place in the Church of the Nativity in the village of Bykovo (Moscow province).
Ivan Ilyin was not the only child in the family. He had three brothers. Each of them tried to find his own way in life, but in the end they all entered the law faculty and followed in his father's footsteps.
Ivan’s grandfather on the line of his father was the builder of the Grand Kremlin Palace, and a little later his commandant. He also received the rank of colonel. My aunt Ilina Yekaterina Zhukovskaya (she worked as a translator under the pseudonym D. Torokhova) was the wife of the famous journalist Yuli Zhukovsky. The second aunt on the father’s side got the husband of a talented historian and teacher from St. Petersburg, Yakov Grigorievich Gurevich.
You can list all known relatives of this family for a long time. Each of them has distinguished himself and left a mark. Ivan Alexandrovich Ilyin, a philosopher and publicist, was no exception.
The boy was born in Moscow in 1883, March 28. He was baptized in the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin on April 22. He began to get acquainted with the diploma in the 5th Moscow Gymnasium, where he studied for exactly 5 years.After that, the 1st Moscow Gymnasium, which he graduated with a gold medal in 1901, took to his walls.
The boy received a classical education, which included knowledge of such languages as Greek, Church Slavonic, Latin, German, and French. It is known that Ivan Ilyin, during his studies, had a special interest in philosophy, but after graduating from the gymnasium, he entered the law faculty of Moscow University. Already in 1906, he became a university graduate and received a diploma of the 1st degree. He is offered to stay to try himself as a teacher. Soon I. Ilyin begins to lecture. Three years later he became a private assistant professor.
After starting teaching, Ivan was able to devote more time to what he was really interested in - philosophy. In 1910 he joined the Moscow Psychological Society. He writes a scientific work on the topic "The concept of power and law." Soon he leaves for a business trip to France and Germany, where he studies new trends in European philosophy. After 8 years, Ilyin defends his thesis on the topic "Hegel's philosophy as a doctrine on the concreteness of God and man." For the huge work done, he was given the degree of doctor and master of state sciences.
Ivan Ilyin is a philosopher who was not afraid to express his views. His official opponents were two professors - E. Trubetskoy and P. Novgorodtsev. The political views of the hero of our article were quite radical during the First Russian Revolution. By 1906, he settled down and went headlong into scientific activity.
In the fall of 1922, he was expelled from Russia by the personal order of V. I. Lenin on the Philosophical Steamship. The latter consisted solely of prominent, but unwelcome authorities, economists, historians and philosophers. The place of exile was the city of Stettin, which at that time belonged to Germany, but today this territory belongs to the possessions of Poland. He gets a job at the Russian Scientific Institute (Berlin) and remains here for several years.
By 1930, state funding for the school had ceased, and Ilyin had to look for other ways to earn money. He took an active part in anti-communist rallies and published in the circles of "political Protestantism."
From the 1920s Ilyin became one of the key ideologues of the White movement. From 1927 to 1930 he worked as a publisher and editor of the Russian Bell.In 1934 he loses his job. Since then, it begins to pursue the Gestapo.
In 1938, Ilyin managed to move to Switzerland. Great support, including financial support, is provided by Sergey Rakhmaninov. I. Ilyin - a philosopher who was committed to the end of his days. He spends the rest of his life in Zollikon, where he continues his scientific activities. It is known that Ilyin, Ivan Alexandrovich “The singing heart. The book of quiet contemplation "and" The Path to Evidence "was written here.
From 1966 to 2005, books from Ilyin’s personal library could be found at the University of Michigan. Since 2006, they have been located in the Department of Rare Books and Manuscripts in the Scientific Library of Moscow State University. M. Lomonosov. The personal library of Ivan Alexandrovich has 630 books and other publications. About 560 Russian-language books. He mainly collected publications on philosophy, history and literature. Also in his collection there are rare works of N. Karamzin and other valuable publications. To date, the catalog of publications of the Ilyin Library is available to everyone in electronic and printed form.
Ilyin (philosopher) devoted his books to various topics. He wrote about Russia and its political regime, about life, its essence and problems, about global problems of philosophy, about fascism and even about spelling. The scope of his interests were very broad.Among the recognized and most famous works of the philosopher are the following:
- “On Resisting Evil by Power”;
- "Axioms of Religious Experience";
- lectures on the concept of the monarchy and the republic;
- "The philosophy of Hegel as a doctrine of the concreteness of God and man";
- "On the essence of justice."
Ilyin, Ivan Alexandrovich about Russia
I. Ilyin believed that Western countries are trying to dismember Russia, and argued that for them it is no more than a market. He believed that the world behind the scenes does not tolerate the uniqueness of the Russian people and does everything to disunite the people. Ilyin suggested that after the Bolsheviks lose power, two ways will open up before the country: the opportunity to reunite under the authority of a powerful leader or complete chaos, which will be supported by Western leaders. The second option meant death for Russia - hatred, mistrust, chauvinism, economic collapse. The philosopher urged people to come to their senses and not to destroy themselves, because the Russians are a great people whose strength is in unity.
Ilyin, Ivan Aleksandrovich, whose books to this day are a well of wisdom for many prominent figures, wrote a lot about fascism.He believed that the only merit of Hitler was that he stopped the process of Bolshevization in his country, which did a great service to all of Europe. The philosopher emphasized that in his time Fascism brought more benefits than harm. He strengthened the national feelings of the people, without which it was impossible to unite, and sought fair ways to reform the social and political system of society.
Ilyin, Ivan Alexandrovich, whose philosophy was not pleasing to the authorities, openly wrote that Bolshevism was a danger, and democracy was a dead end. A people can be reborn under the authority of a dictator who will approach the solution of problems gently but confidently, and pay special attention to the social issue.
Nevertheless, Ilyin pointed to a number of errors in fascism. The main one is the opposition of oneself to Christianity, that is, the basis of Russian society.
"Axioms of Religious Experience"
Ilyin, Ivan Alexandrovich in this book paid great attention to religious issues. It is written in a philosophical style, so it pushes on many reflections. Ilyin argues that any religion is built on a certain experience, an experience.The duty of every believer is to keep and transmit this experience, reverently cherishing it in his soul. Thanks to the knowledge of religion, a person is spiritually purified, passing the experience of generations through himself. This book will help those who are looking for their way and trying to figure out their relationship with God and religion.
"On the resistance to evil by force"
Ilyin, Ivan Alexandrovich, whose books are of tremendous value, wrote On the Resistance to Evil by Power in 1925, when he was in Berlin. The work of the philosopher is devoted to the criticism of the ideas of L. Tolstoy on non-violence, as well as the participants of the White movement. The work has many references to the works of Tolstoy. Criticism is carried out in great detail. It is believed that it was from this book that Ilyin's path began as a social psychologist.
What did Ilyin want to convey? The philosopher argued that resisting evil with love really works, but not always. In some cases, when all methods have been tried, evil must be repulsed by force. Interestingly, the author does not make a supreme benefactor out of violence. He adequately acknowledges that violence is wrong in its essence, but is sometimes necessary and therefore not sinful.He emphasizes that the choice of a way to resist evil is a personal matter. Much depends on this choice, but only a mature and healthy person can make it right. What is the main question Ilyin asks us? The philosopher asks whether it is possible to combine faith in God and resistance to evil with a sword. Can you believe and punish?
“I look into life. The Book of Thoughts
Ilyin, Ivan Alexandrovich wrote another great book, about which it is impossible not to mention. She talks about simple things and is intended for an ordinary person who lives a simple life, but feels tormented and is looking for himself. What is the main idea presents Ilyin? The philosopher examines various aspects of life (life, poverty, character traits, people's complaints, human passions, etc.) and tries to invent a harmonious life formula. The great advantage of his works is that they do not push to a certain conclusion, but simply open the horizon and allow you to look at ordinary things from the other side. This is the talent of Ilyin as a philosopher.
Summing up the article, I would like to say that Ivan Ilyin was a prominent and wise man.It is advisable to get acquainted with his works to anyone who wants to at least a little understand life. That only is the fact that it is still quoted by people like V.V. Putin.