Inhaler for asthma: types, names, instructions for use. Which inhaler is better
An asthmatic attack is a dangerous phenomenon. Being an acute manifestation of the disease, it requires immediate assistance. However, when taking pills, syrups and other pharmacological agents, there is no immediate effect. Even intramuscular injections do not contribute to its occurrence. Help in such cases can only inhalation.
After all, they allow drugs to get directly into the respiratory tract. That is why asthma use special inhalers to relieve an acute attack. These devices are easy to use and safe, and therefore are popular with all categories of patients.
Any asthma inhaler provides rapid delivery of pharmacological agents to the bronchial system. Today there are many different types of similar devices. And each of them has its positive and negative sides.The list of asthma inhalers is presented by the following devices:
1. Spacers. They are indispensable in cases where the patient is a child. The fact is that spacers contribute to bronchial medication, regardless of the patient's breathing.
2. Nebulizers. Such devices contribute to the maximum dispersal of the drug in a small area of the bronchial system. Nebulizers are easy to use, but the medicine can only be ingested by inhalation.
3. Pocket. These are inhalers, compact and convenient in application.
Consider these types of asthma inhalers in more detail.
This asthma inhaler is an optional device that is connected to the main aerosol inhaler. The spacer, as a rule, has the shape of a tube and is designed to perform the task of improving the delivery of the drug directly into the respiratory tract.
This device has two holes. One of them is intended for the inhaler. Through the second, the medicinal aerosol is released first into the oral cavity and then into the patient’s bronchi.The design of the spacer has special valves that can be made of metal or plastic. They join the inhaler and allow you to apply the drug only while inhaling. When exhaling, these valves close. This design allows the most economical use of the drug.
As you can see, the spacer is a fairly simple device. However, it has a number of useful qualities, namely:
1. Thanks to the use of the spacer, the number of drug particles entering the respiratory tract is multiplied. After all, the speed of the jet pharmacological agents is quite high. Because of this, a significant amount of the drug does not fall into the required area, remaining in the oral cavity.
2. The spacer, not allowing the medicine to settle in the mouth, allows the drug to be absorbed less into the blood.
3. The device allows not to fix the beginning of the patient's inhalation before pressing the inhaler.
4. Spacers provide invaluable assistance in treating a child. After all, it is difficult for small patients to analyze the respiratory process during inhalation.The device also allows the drug to penetrate the bronchi, regardless of the child's breath.
There are different types of spacers. The main differences between them are in shape and size. Most of these devices are implemented together with the main inhalers. Such spacers are inferior in size to those offered separately by pharmacies or specialty stores for allergy sufferers.
In a number of similar devices there are removable elements, which makes them easier to wash. Some spacers have sound controllers that monitor the speed of breathing. When inhaling too fast, the spacer beeps.
The price of such devices is low. On average, it does not exceed one thousand rubles. That is why many asthmatics prefer to have two or even more spacers, using them, for example, at home and at work.
The only drawback of the device is its size. The device can not be constantly carried with you as it is possible in the case of a pocket spray.
Such devices are not only intended for the treatment of asthma. They are successfully used in various diseases of the bronchi, in the list of which there is bronchitis.
The nebulizer is a fairly simple device, the main functional part of which is represented by a compressor. The purpose of this main part is to convert the solution of the active drug into an aerosol. An air tube is attached to the compressor, at the end of which a nebulizer chamber is located. In this capacity and are active substances. A mask or mouthpiece is attached to the camera.
Such an inhaler for bronchial asthma allows the active ingredients to get directly into the bronchi. This treatment has several advantages:
- achieving the desired effect in a fairly short period of time;
- the ability to repeatedly reduce the dosage prescribed to the patient systemic drugs, or even completely abandon their use;
- remove or reduce side effects.
If you use such an inhaler for asthma, then the patient will need to follow some fairly simple rules. First of all, it is necessary to thoroughly rinse and dry the solution tank, as well as the tube, mouthpiece or nozzle after each procedure. After using corticosteroids, rinse your mouth and wash your face.
An inhaler for asthmatics can be:
1. Compressor. It is the cheapest and therefore the most common type of inhalation device. In it, the medicinal solution turns into an aerosol form with the help of a compressor. This part of the apparatus generates a stream of air masses.
Compressor inhaler for asthmatics is easy to operate. In addition, when spraying, it retains the structure of medicinal substances. The advantages of the compressor nebulizer include its affordable price, as well as the provision of an economizer, which allows the supply of an aerosol only at the moments of inhalation.
2. Ultrasound. Such an inhaler is equipped with an ultrasonic generator reproducing a specific wave. With its help, the medicinal solution is brought to the state of an aerosol. This inhaler is small and works very quietly. Its only drawback is the limited list of substances used. After all, the structure of large molecules in medicinal substances by ultrasound can be changed.
3. Electron-mesh. This is a relatively new development of the nebulizer.In such devices, an aerosol cloud is created by a vibrating membrane. The device has all the advantages of the types of nebulizers described above. Thanks to this device, almost the entire volume of the medicinal product enters the lungs.
Some models of electron-mesh nebulizers operate in a pulsating mode, synchronized with the frequency of breaths. This can significantly improve the efficiency of the use of the device. Nevertheless, a similar asthma inhaler is rarely acquired. The price for it is high and ranges from 5 to 20 thousand rubles.
What kind of nebulizer to choose?
Which inhaler is better? No one can give a definite answer to this question. The choice of a particular type of device will depend only on the patient. In general, low-cost compressor models are perfect for treatment. However, those who want to see mobility and noiselessness in the device will need to purchase its ultrasonic type.
Which inhaler is better in terms of the substance used? If the patient is prescribed a drug that is incompatible with ultrasound, then the most optimal option for him is an electronic mesh nebulizer. However, in this case there are some restrictions on the use of oil-containing drugs.
If we consider the inhalers from the point of view of efficiency, then numerous studies have shown that regardless of the type of apparatus used, the treatment of the patient is equally successful.
In people suffering from bronchial asthma, an attack can occur suddenly. In this regard, the majority of patients are forced to carry with them special cans. The pocket inhaler is an indispensable helper, capable of eliminating a choking attack in the shortest possible time. It is especially necessary for people leading an active lifestyle.
The pocket inhaler is a can of pressure medication. At the time of pressing, the required dose gets into the respiratory tract, and the medicine immediately begins its effect. It is worth saying that this version of the device is the most effective for eliminating an asthmatic attack.
Such devices are:
- dosed powder;
Consider these types of compact devices in more detail.
Liquid Dosing Inhaler
Such a device allows the use of various types of aerosols.Moreover, they enter the body in a given amount. The dosed aerosol inhaler (DAI) is by far the most common in the world among the systems for delivering pharmacological drugs to the respiratory tract. It is worth noting that almost two thirds of patients suffering from bronchial asthma use such inhalers.
What is the principle of operation of this inhaler? The balloon is placed drug in the form of a suspension. Here is the propellant. This is a special substance that creates excess pressure, the level of which reaches several atmospheres. The propellant contributes to the suspension of the suspension into the external environment, and when a special mechanism is activated, an aerosol is formed at the exit of the cartridge.
The main advantages of liquid metered-dose inhalers include:
- speed of execution of the procedure;
- no need to refuel drugs;
- convenience and portability;
- low cost.
But DAI has some drawbacks. So, when using these inhalers notes:
- too rapid aerosol formation, leading to the sedimentation of almost 80% of the drug on the back of the throat;
- the presence of the phenomenon of the residue, when in the cartridge after using 200 standard doses there are still 20 doses of the agent having an unpredictable concentration of active substances;
- the fall in the activity of pharmacological drugs during long-term storage of the inhaler;
- irritant effect of an aerosol spray having a low temperature.
Powder Dosing Inhaler
These devices were developed as an alternative to DAIs. Powder inhalers are designed to get into the patient’s respiratory system of a specific dose of a dry drug. What is the principle of their work? During the inhalation of the patient, vortex flows are created in the device. In this case, the drug, which passes through a special element, is crushed to the smallest particles, the size of which does not reach even 5 microns. This contributes to the slow hit of almost 40% of the drug in the respiratory tract.
The main advantages of dosed powder inhalers include:
- the ability to not coordinate the breath and activate the inhaler;
- easy handling and portability;
- no side effect in the form of irritation on the mucous membrane;
- lack of propellants;
- compliance of the powder temperature with the storage conditions of the device.
The disadvantages of DPI are:
- the need to breath with considerable effort, which is necessary for the activation of the inhaler;
- the high cost of the device;
- the inability to use the spacer;
- the complexity of the need to use high doses.
An example of PDI can serve as the drug "Turbuhaler."
Inhalation with hormones
In hormonal inhalers use of glucocorticosteroids of the widest spectrum of action is provided. Well known hormones such as Salbutamol and Terbutaline. They are designed to actively combat the inflammatory process occurring in the patient's body, and to relieve swelling of the mucous membranes.
Such funds are used only after the course of treatment with oral medications. Hormonal drugs actively affect the respiratory system, while not penetrating into the bloodstream. The side effects of their use are minimal, as the drugs do not knock the body's hormonal rhythm and do not affect the metabolism.
This drug is available in the form of a metered-dose aerosol for inhalation. Its main active ingredient is salbutamol sulfate. His can contains 0,029 g.
What is the pharmacokinetics of the drug "Salbutamol"? Instructions for use of the inhaler with this remedy are recommended by most asthmatics. It contributes to the delivery of 10-20% of the dose of the active substance in the lower respiratory tract. The rest of the drug is deposited in the oropharynx or remains in the cartridge. The drug deposited on the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract is not metabolized in the lungs, being absorbed into the blood and lung tissues.
What does the instructions for use say about the indications for use of the drug "Salbutamol"? An inhaler with this remedy helps with relief of asthma attacks and is also used to prevent them. In addition, this tool is recommended as one of the components of maintenance therapy.
"Salbutamol" is also prescribed for obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic bronchitis.
This drug is also popular among patients with bronchial asthma.In its pharmacological properties, it is quite close to Salbutamol.
Terbutaline for the inhaler is available as a metered-dose aerosol. Its main purpose is to stop and prevent bronchospasm in chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, pulmonary emphysema, as well as for other bronchopulmonary pathologies, the course of which is complicated by the bronchial obstruction syndrome.