How to prepare a child for school? What does a child need in school
A child grows, and sooner or later there comes a time when parents think about preparing for school. Is it needed, and if so, what should it be? Do you really need special classes or can you do it at home?
School is serious!
Know that the upcoming lifestyle change is a serious stress for the child, no less than for us the transition to another job. Parental unrest is understandable - all subsequent success depends on a good start to school career.
When the first days of the child in school are successful, he hears the praise of the teacher - this is a huge positive incentive. Positive experience is fixed and becomes the basis of life's journey.
All parents solve the same questions. Which school to send the child? At what age - from six or seven? Or maybe closer to eight? How do you know in advance whether the kid will cope with the workload? How to prepare a child for school to reduce the inevitable difficulties to a minimum? These questions arise about a year before the first school day of the kid.
What is meant?
Any parent believes his child is ready for school. Someone is based on reading, intelligence, logic of the baby. Others are calm, as they managed to teach the child to read by syllables and write a little. Others rely on the independence and sociability of their son or daughter. Fourth - on education and obedience.
But development is not everything. The ability to meet school requirements, work in a group, and contact with other children is very important. That is, it is not about abstract readiness, but about the possibility of successful training in a specific program and in a specific team.
When is the best time to start?
No matter what anyone says, it is better to start studying at the age of 7. Numerous discussions about early childhood development are not always compatible with real life. Even a smart and creative child with health problems can close the opportunity for learning from the age of 6. Not realizing this, parents risk harming their offspring.
After five years, children begin to take shape important future educational needs. This desire to engage in serious activities, communicate with peers and strive for success.And also to be good in the eyes of the teacher and parents, that is, to assert itself in relations with others.
If the child is weakened, it will be difficult for him to work in the classroom. He will start to tire quickly and cannot even keep a correct posture at his desk. To master the skill of writing, the child must have developed fine motor skills. But large muscles must be “on top” - the kid should be able to run, jump, throw the ball and play with peers.
Not only health
A child’s physical readiness for school is not everything. No less important is the psychological readiness. And it consists of the intellectual-personal and emotional-volitional.
Socio-psychological, or personal readiness - the ability to adapt to a new social role that implies new rules of behavior and a different status in society. It manifests itself in relation to the teacher and the process of study, parents and peers, as well as in a properly formed self-assessment.
Attitude towards school, study and teacher is manifested in the willingness to comply with the new regime, come on time, diligently carry out educational tasks, understand the meaning of lessons, contact the teacher and classmates.
We carry out diagnostics
To assess the degree of personal maturity preschooler should talk with him. Invite a child to draw a future class, a teacher. You can ask if he would agree to go to school if he had the opportunity to continue to go to kindergarten.
It is necessary to find out what attracts in training. The desire to learn can be caused by the purchase of bright attractive accessories - what the child needs for school (pencil case, knapsack, stationery, beautiful school uniform). Or - if the best friend goes to school. The task of the parents is to ensure that the child is attracted by educational activities.
Sometimes the future student has a complete lack of motivation. Children are afraid to go to school, they say that they will put two, they will not have time to play and rest. Most often, this attitude is the result of the pedagogical miscalculation of the parents. In no case should children be intimidated by the school, especially the timid and insecure.
It is difficult to change the current negative attitude towards learning, as well as lack of confidence in one’s own strength. This will require a lot of parental work and patience.
And if he is not ready?
Statistics say that about a third of first-graders do not have the proper readiness for school. If good intellectual development is superimposed on personal immaturity, then the baby will demonstrate a lack of responsibility and learn very unevenly.
What are the signs of personal unreadiness? This is extreme spontaneity, the lack of a concept of discipline, the desire to play in the lessons, the inability and unwillingness to raise a hand. Such a child can be forced to switch to study only with repeated reminders.
What does intellectual readiness include? This is curiosity, the proper level of development of imaginative representations, the ability to navigate the surrounding world, developed speech and sensory skills.
What is required of parents?
Sometimes, moms and dads think that their task is to bring the child to school, and they are obliged to teach and educate him in kindergarten. Thus, they transfer their own family responsibilities to the pre-school institution, which is justified only in case of extreme employment. Any parent is able to independently impart to his son or daughter all the necessary skills.
You need to talk with your child on various topics, discuss films and books, teach you to have your own opinion on each question and express it tactfully.
How to prepare a child for school from a psychological point of view? First of all - create a positive image of the school and the teacher. Hike there should be a holiday and a new stage of life. It is necessary to explain to the child, what are the advantages of school life, what he will learn there and what is waiting for him interesting.
Since childhood it is very important to lay the right attitude towards mistakes and successes. It is necessary to teach not to lose heart due to the inevitable failures, to be able to draw conclusions and to work correctly on mistakes.
Do not demand too much. If a child doesn’t read or write well, it’s not a tragedy to read. Such skills are not required for admission to grade 1. The task of primary school is to teach children all this.
What is desirable to be able to?
It is very useful to inculcate elementary skills: to teach a child to read by syllables, count to ten, hold the pen correctly, display the first letters. At the same time, it is necessary to monitor compliance with the level of its development requirements. If the assigned tasks correspond to the real potential, the interest in studying will not disappear.
To maintain a positive motivation, a game preparation of a child for school is useful - lessons with color pictures, guessing words. You can try to stimulate the first success by handing symbolic prizes.
Try to write a fairy tale: for example, different animals explain why each of them wants to go to school. Someone likes to play with classmates, another wants to feel like an adult, the third wants to learn and become something. Then you should ask the child, which of the characters is right. If a child is only set to play and has no cognitive motive, he is not ready for school.
An important criterion is the development of speech.
Read the kid a short story in 6-7 sentences and offer to retell. If a child has difficulty in constructing phrases, harmonizing words, unable to build a storyline, it is necessary to work on the development of speech. The best way is to read books aloud and ask about what you read. For the development of memory, it is useful to clarify what a particular character said or did, where the tale began and ended, and so on.
Ask how the day went to kindergarten, what the guys were talking about, play with words, make riddles. It is important to check the phonemic hearing in time and identify possible abnormalities.This can be done independently. Ask your child to pronounce words by syllable or to find an extra word in a series of similar sound. In case of violations will require the assistance of a speech therapist.
It is better to listen to fairy tales for the child, and not to look at pictures in the book. At the same time, figurative thinking develops.
We work on logic and self-control
The basics of logical thinking can be developed with requests to finish the sentences that have been started, to call the extra word in a row, games of analogy, where you need to pick up a couple to the word (summer - winter, day - night).
As a rule, by the age of 6–7, verbal thinking is formed. If mistakes in the process of such games are one or two, everything is in order. If more - you need to do. The bookstores have a huge amount of collections of all the necessary exercises.
Skills of self-control are determined by games like “yes” and “no” not to speak. ”There should be no more than 10 questions. If a kid answers most of them without stumbling, his level of self-control can be considered high. This indicator is extremely important for the future. study
There are many games built according to different rules. For example, you can not repeat the same word.Having met, say, with the name of a flower, you should clap your hands and so on. All this works on the development of memory, logic, speech activity.
Do not forget about small and large motor skills
What else does a child’s preparation for school include? Classes for the study of fine motor skills, coordination of the muscles of the hands and fingers. They will need to cut and stick on paper geometric figures (squares, circles, triangles), draw geometric patterns on sheets in a cell, sculpt from clay.
It is also possible to stimulate the development of fine motor skills by massaging the hands, finger gymnastics, sorting out small objects (for example, buttons), laying out a mosaic, and so on.
Remember that the better developed motor skills of the hands, the more stimulated the brain and speech of the child.
Coordination and high-grade motor skills improve ball games, hide-and-seek, relay races, tasks requiring step-by-step execution. Team sports are also useful.
It is important to teach the child to relax the muscles of the arms, lowering them along the body. With a reduced or increased tone, relaxation should be carried out with the help of massage. This is important for future success in writing.
About the practical side of the issue
Moms and dads must know how to prepare a child for school without compromising health. Usually, all planned vaccinations are required before they go to school. But do not overdo it. Do not send a child to them in a row, especially before starting school. Remember the individual health features. Some vaccinations are not given at the same time, others may cause allergies. A very detailed examination by a specialist, held a year before school, is very useful.
Gradually tune in to the future mode. If the baby is not used to getting up early, it is necessary during the summer to slowly shift the hours of recovery. This should be done without abrupt transitions in order to prevent the failure of biorhythms. Otherwise, the workload may be the child is not on the shoulder.
You should visit a speech therapist, it is better to school, because in the first weeks and months all the forces will be thrown to another. You should also visit a psychologist.
What else is important
During homework, monitor your posture, teach to hold the pen correctly and place the notebook on the table. The workplace should be well thought out and well-organized, taking into account medical and aesthetic requirements.
Getting a child to school is no easy task.Think over all the subtleties - the choice of comfortable and high-quality clothes, safe and attractive stationery, a convenient satchel.
Go together to buy everything the child needs in school, let him choose the pens, notebooks, satchel. Independent solution of these important issues, along with fitting school uniforms, will give the kid a sense of importance, will establish him in a new role.
Where to prepare a child for school?
In modern kindergartens with the status of a child development center, such training begins with the older group. The program of preparing children for school in these gardens is usually conducted according to a certain methodology and is coordinated with the teachers of nearby educational institutions.
The undoubted advantages of it are to study in a familiar environment and familiar team, the game form of classes, alternating them with rest and walks.
Another option is to prepare the child for special classes in the school. This study is most reminiscent of "adult." Little preschoolers have real lessons and changes, they carry school bags with textbooks with them.
Such preschool preparation has its advantages - familiarity with the future teacher, classmates, getting used to the school rules (raising a hand, going to the blackboard, and so on).
The disadvantage is that in the evening children are tired to study hard, and their attention is dissipated.
And yet: how to prepare a child for school as efficiently as possible? There are special development centers that allow you to choose the most convenient option. This may be group classes on their own schedule, especially convenient for children who do not go to kindergarten.
Good results are given by group classes with a psychologist and a speech therapist. This form provides open lessons in the presence of parents, where you can compare the achievements of your baby and other children.
There are also individual lessons with the teacher at home, aimed at a particular child. Such a method is most effective, but it excludes communication with peers and does not teach to work in a team.
About parental errors
What mistakes do parents of a future first grader usually make? The main one is to overload the child’s activities, to deprive the games and communication with peers. This will form an aversion to future studies. It is also unacceptable intimidation by twos, punishments, possible mockery of classmates.
You should not force the same work to be rewritten several times. It does not bring any special benefit, it causes only fatigue and irritation.
It is very important to unconditionally believe in your own child, to praise for any achievements, to help in failures, but at the same time you should not shift your work to yourself.