How to make a column with your own hands? How to make speakers for your computer with your own hands?
Make a column with his own hands under the force of those who know how to handle a soldering iron, and also understands electrical circuits. The work will require a small amount of parts that can be borrowed, for example, from car radio. Also you will need a material for the manufacture of speaker housings. Usually, wood is used for these purposes, but you can even use a plastic case of acoustics that have become unusable. Before you sit down for a soldering iron and etching a printed circuit board, you should choose a design, a microcircuit, and the capabilities of a speaker system.
What do you need from acoustics?
It's nice when the sound reproduced from a personal computer sounds throughout the entire audible range (ranging from 20 Hz to 20 kHz). To underline any specific frequencies you need to use special filters.Most of the cheap speakers that can be found on sale, reproduce sounds in the range from 50-100 Hertz and up to 15 kHz. From this sound seems incomplete, ugly. Therefore, loudspeakers, made by hand, must have higher performance to meet your needs.
Immediately decide which frequencies you plan to emphasize, whether there will be a possibility of manual adjustment in your amplifier. But if you decide to go the easy way, then it will be enough to filter low and high so that devices reproducing this spectrum work in parallel with the main speakers. Probably, you have heard such words as "tweeters" (small speakers, filtering high frequencies) and "subwoofer" (a large wooden box in which the speaker is located to play the bottom). Here you have to do them yourself.
What do you need for a subwoofer?
Without a quality box, it will not work. Surround sound is created by air that moves inside the box. Moreover, the air sets in motion the diffuser dynamics. So you need to make a closed box with a single hole for air to escape.Since you are doing the speakers for the computer with your own hands, there is no need to use the huge speakers that are used for car audio. The ideal option is the car speakers used as standard, which is installed in the front. Small diameter speakers, rubberized diffusers, soft and elastic. This is exactly what is required for the subwoofer.
Of course, it will not create strong air pressure, but for a small room it will be enough to emphasize low frequencies. You will also need a bass booster, which is a lot on the radio market If possible, you can remove it from the old car recorder. Output power should be at least 20 watts, and the power supply of the chip is preferably unipolar. But the most important thing is a low pass filter (LPF), because how to make a column with your own hands with a subwoofer without this node will not work. Do not clutter the design of complex low-pass filter on the chips and operational amplifiers. Enough passive filter assembled from resistors and capacitors. Depending on their parameters, the frequencies are cut off.
How to make a box for a subwoofer
For the manufacture of boxes need to use solid wood. Ideal chipboard or fiberboard, its thickness should be no more than 5 mm, so that the design turned out as easy as possible. If there are old Soviet televisions in wooden boxes, then you can make a good box out of them. Cut all elements of the construction with the jigsaw. Loudspeakers, assembled with their own hands, should be durable, so do not feel sorry for the glue and screws for holding fasteners. The front part, on which the speaker is installed, is fastened last.
To stiffen the box, use triangular wooden slats. Try to glue all small cracks and gaps. After all, the air in the subwoofer will move, and you need it to not go out of the cracks, because the sound deteriorates because of this. In the back of the box, you need to drill a hole for the wire, and the connector for connection to the amplifier is mounted outside. It is much more convenient if the speakers, made with their own hands, will be compact and without external units.
How to make a power supply
As mentioned above, it is not necessary to take for the design of a chip with bipolar power. The reason is the complexity of the power supply; it is not easy to get the current required for operation.Therefore, it is best to make constructions that can be connected to a unipolar power source with a voltage of 12-24 V. And then the repair of the columns with your own hands will be much easier if, of course, some breakdown occurs. The power of the transformer must be slightly larger than the power of the consumers - all the microcircuits of amplifiers.
The best option is to make one power supply for all devices. For the effective location of all acoustic units, it is worthwhile to place both the power supply and the low-pass filter with an amplifier for the subwoofer, and the ULF for the main speakers and tweeters in the same package. This allows ergonomic use of equipment, and the number of wires becomes minimal. On the back of the subwoofer you need to install connectors for connecting the main speakers and tweeters. But keep in mind that the subwoofer is a source of vibration, so the soldering must be performed qualitatively, and the attachment to the body should be done with rubber washers.
Do-it-yourself speakers: amplifier and power supply unit
The amplifier and power supply can be embedded in the subwoofer body to save space, and on the outside to install connectors for connecting "tulips". The hole is filled with a sealant, after which the front side is installed.It is also mounted first with a sealant, and then attracted by screws. After drying, the box should be covered with suitable material.
As a power supply, you can use a simple circuit: a transformer, a rectifier bridge and 2-3 electrolytic capacitors. Such speakers for the computer, collected by themselves, will work fine, the sound will be clear and pleasant. If there is a slight buzz, then increase the electrolyte capacity. In the absence of elements with large capacity, you can connect several pieces in parallel, then the total will be equal to the sum of all capacitors.
How to make the main speakers do it yourself
For the manufacture of the case you can use both wood and plastic. Preference is better to give the first, since its use in acoustics improves the sound quality. If you are too lazy to engage in cutting wood, you can refine the speakers from the old radio or use them without alteration. Amplifier and power supply you will be collected in the subwoofer box, so it remains only to connect the speakers to the right connectors.Therefore, if there are two speakers from the music center, you can safely use them.
If you decide to do everything in the best possible way, then, by analogy with the subwoofer box, you also make two enclosures for the main speakers. If desired, they can also be pasted over with attractive material. Pasting with thin felt, for example, improves the sound quality of the speaker system. In these columns, it is best to install two speakers for each - for mid and high frequencies. This will save the wires for connection, and provide a more attractive appearance of the entire system.
PCB manufacturing for amplifiers and rectifiers
Perhaps no less time-consuming process, which takes a lot of time. If the scheme chosen by you is simple enough, then you can apply the pattern on the foil material using a permanent marker. Only pre-treat the foil with an electrolyte for car batteries or hydrochloric acid. This will degrease the surface and improve the etching process. If the design of the PCB is complex, then it is better to use laser-iron technology and software for drawing tracks.Here's how to make a column with your own hands, namely a circuit board for her.
In the program, you outline the location of the elements, draw the tracks, and then print the resulting image on a laser printer with the maximum saturation of black. Paper is better to use gloss. Then you place the drawing face down on the surface of the PCB foil, fasten the paper and wrap it in a clean rag. With a heated iron, now you need to drive along a piece of cloth so that the picture is printed as accurately as possible. This procedure is carried out for 10-15 minutes. After its completion, wet the paper in water, all the excess will go away, and only the toner will remain on the foil. If necessary, adjustments need to draw the missing elements with a permanent marker.
After the transfer is complete, you will need a solution of ferric chloride. Most radio amateurs use it, since the etching process with its help takes little time. If you use a solution of copper sulphate and salt, then the etching may take a day or two, depending on the concentration of substances. It also happens that the solution of ferric chloride badly erodes copper, therefore, to increase the etching rate, it is necessary to heat it.Try not to miss the moment when the tracks will be freed from excess metal, otherwise the destruction of that part of the foil that is under the toner will go.
In principle, you can do your own music speakers without etching printed circuit boards. There is a hinged installation, which is much easier to do. But after all, a beautiful board with the correct installation looks much nicer than a bunch of wires and pins. And the possibility of interference in the case of mounted installation is much higher. After etching the board, it must be thoroughly washed and dried. And only after removing the toner layer with a solvent or alcohol, you can proceed to the installation of the elements.
Installation of elements on the PCB
Now you just have to outline the location of all elements on the surface of the board. First, make marks in those places where you want to make holes with a drill with a diameter of 1-1.2 mm. Lesson is not easy, because under strong pressure, you can simply break the drill. To improve printed wiring, it is necessary to tin (cover with a layer of tin) all the board tracks.To do this, they should be treated with a solution of rosin, all of them, after which a heated soldering iron with tin should be walked along each so that the solder adheres firmly to the copper surface. Excessive heating is not needed, as there is a risk that the foil will begin to peel off from the PCB.
Before installing the elements, their conclusions must also be tinned. Only in this case, computer speakers, made by hand, will have the highest possible reliability. In the presence of vibration, the soldering may collapse very quickly, the contact will disappear, and the amplifier will stop working or will work, but with a wheeze, it is unstable.
As you can see from all this, you can make high-quality acoustics from any material that is available at hand. Pay only attention to its condition, you should not use rotten wood for a subwoofer or speakers. The element base of the LF amplifiers is very small - a single chip is enough, which provides an output power of 10-20 watts per two channels. Simple musical speakers, designed with their own hands, will last you for many years, and the sound quality will allow you to enjoy both music and movies with special effects.