How to dig a well with your own hands
In any person, the words "house in the country" or "dacha" are associated with clean air, fruits and vegetables from their own vegetable garden. Almost everyone imagines himself lying in a hammock or a lounge chair away from the city rush in the shade of trees with a glass of icy well water. Unfortunately, in a village or village it happens that almost the only source of drinking water is a column or the same central water supply. What is the way out of this situation? To the question: "How do you dig a well and do it right?" This article will help to answer.
A bit of theory
At the mention of the well, thoughts about how water appears under the layers of the ground immediately come to mind. It enters the earth from the sky, that is, in the form of various precipitations: rain, hail and snow. Rain and melt water only partially flows into streams, and then into other reservoirs: rivers, streams and lakes. The main mass seeps into the soil through the porous layers of the earth and, under the influence of a certain gravitational force, descends to a certain place - the inert layer.A barrier to water becomes a layer of upper layers of soil, clay, loam and rock, pressed to almost complete impermeability. In this area a water pocket is formed, if you dig a well (Moscow region is a great place for this) correctly, the water will flow into it.
Although the impermeable layer is considered an insurmountable resistance to water, a part of the liquid also seeps through it, because it is not a solid monolith. The natural "barrier" has micropores, through which water passes to the next stratum and so on. Therefore, in one area and at different depths, several aquifers can run. But for those interested in how to dig a well with their own hands, this should not be a problem.
The aquifers are subdivided into several types by depth:
- Verkhovka is a layer of water that forms at the very top impermeable layer of the earth. It is located at a shallow depth, and the water that has fallen into it has not yet had time to properly clean, therefore it is not suitable for drinking. The water level of the upper layer varies, in the heat it can even completely dry out.Often, gardeners use it for irrigation, irrigation and other needs: for this they dig small holes, in which the upper layer accumulates. When there is a question about how to dig a well correctly, it is necessary to take into account the fact that the upper water must be isolated as much as possible, that is, to make sure that it does not fall into the well in any way.
- Groundwater is the second layer, which runs at a depth that perfectly filters water to the point where it can be eaten. It is the groundwater that serves as the basis for filling the wells. The water that passes through tens of meters of porous soil is perfectly cleaned of impurities and at the same time saturated with the minerals it contains. Well liquid is considered the most pure, and its unique taste is unique for each locality. To taste, it may differ even in two adjacent wells.
- Artesian waters are at a very great depth. Those who know how to dig a well in the country, understand that in order to get to the artesian water, you need to drill special wells. Deep waters are under heavy pressure from soil layers, and therefore fluid can flow through the well by itself, even without the use of pumps.
Types of wells
What is a well? This is a wide mine, reaching groundwater suitable for human consumption, that is, in other words it can be called groundwater. Typically, these reservoirs are no more than 10 meters in depth, but still there are old wells that go into the ground at 20-30 meters.
Wells are of various kinds, most often isolated mine or key. The type of structure directly depends on the depth of the aquifer, therefore, before digging a well yourself, it is necessary to find out at what particular depth this layer is located in this area.
For the construction of a key well, the main condition is the presence of water keys on the site, which hit from the ground or fall from a slope. On the territory where water is released, a water structure of a descending or ascending type is being built.
It is believed that the construction of this method is the fastest, easiest and cheapest method of constructing a well. Its depth does not exceed 2 meters. If we compare the well with concrete rings, then their height coincides completely.
The depth of the mine wells can reach 15 meters, because they are designed for the extraction of deep-sea deposits. The design of the mine well is different.If the bottom of the reservoir is at the lowest level of the aquifer, then it is called perfect. It turns out that the name of the well depends on how to dig the well, and if its bottom only touches the underwater tank with water and water flows through the walls of the well, then it is called imperfect.
Mine wells differ in water volumes. Perfect facilities are needed for large-scale mining and water consumption. And species such as imperfect wells, are used to meet the small and standard needs in the economy. You can dig such a reservoir of various shapes. It depends on the material from which the walls of the mine will be built. Square wells form brick and wood, and round shafts, respectively, of concrete rings. They are more popular and suitable for beginner builders who do not know how to dig a well in the country with their own hands. However, this can be learned by reading this article.
The process of digging the well with his own hands
You can dig a well with your own hands, although this is quite a laborious process. It consists of two stages:
First, a small trench is dug, about half a meter deep, its diameter is equal to the outer width of the concrete ring. A ring is placed in the pit.Next, the digger needs to climb inside and circle the soil, while at the same time digging up the walls of the ring. The concrete circle under the action of its gravity will sink lower and lower. As soon as its edge is level with the ground, it is necessary to install a second concrete ring on it, the digging process should be continued. Behind the second ring is the third and so on. For those who do not know how to dig a well on their own, this algorithm of actions will be most welcome.
The standard ring height is about one meter, respectively, on the construction of the well of such structures will take about 10-15 pieces. To create a more durable unit, it is necessary to fasten all the rings with special brackets, which must then be painted with oil paint. Preparation of the pit is completed by digging the soil in the aquifer, which is the most time-consuming work. In addition, the digging process is complicated by the fact that water constantly enters the pit and turns the soil into a liquid mass, which is best pumped out with a mud pump.
Important points when digging a well
The hardest process is directly digging the earth.It is necessary to do this using a spade with a small handle, and this is not at all easy. Plus, there should be a container for the ground next to the digger, in particular a bucket with a rope, since you need to take out the soil all the time. Also nearby should be a device for constantly arriving water.
How to dig a well quickly? This issue should be approached with all seriousness and great responsibility. It is advisable to start the construction of the well in the period from January to March, when the groundwater level is sufficiently low.
When the desired depth of the well is reached, it is necessary to equip a filter cushion of fine fraction of rubble about 30 cm high. This fixture prevents quick flooding of the well.
It is important to remember that digging a well is a very dirty job. It is necessary to stand knee-deep in damp and cold ground, when pieces of earth and water from a constantly raised bucket fall on you. You need to measure your strength and remember your health. Some easier to immediately hire a team of builders and specialists.
When digging a well, it is important to observe elementary safety standards, here are some of them:
- it is desirable to perform all work in a protective helmet;
- Before descending into the well, it is necessary to check the strength of the rope ladder, as well as all fixtures and accessories for raising water and soil from the bottom of the well.
The final stage of the device well
At the end of all the work necessary to issue the upper part of the well. Usually, the headboard is trimmed with wooden boards or logs; this is done to protect water from pollution. A well can be made an attractive decorative element at the dacha, which can only transform it. For example, above it you can build a house or a mill.
Necessary tools and materials
Having decided on how to dig a well, you need to stock up on the necessary tools and devices, here are the main ones:
- standard and sapper shovels;
- lifting device and tripod;
- chain and rope ladder;
- special wooden device in the form of a stack of boards and logs for the delivery of concrete rings.
What is quicksand
The quicksand is a mixture of sand with clay and small river stones. It can spread and disperse, especially under mechanical influence, like ordinary water.
The biggest problem is the quicksands are delivered to the diggers of the wells.Therefore, before starting work, you need to learn how to dig a well in the quicksand, since it is unlikely to succeed in building a good structure at this place.
A well in a waterhole may supply water for some time, but it must be cleaned frequently. When the well is deepened and cleaned, tangling of concrete rings may occur, since the surrounding sandy soil is floating and mobile.
The water in the quiver is subject to seasonal fluctuations, that is, in the summer its level may decrease, and in the winter it may even freeze or even disappear completely, therefore making the well deepening impractical.
These wells are important elements of the external sewer. Therefore, such a problem as digging a sewer well is quite simple to solve. This can be done by oneself, without resorting to the help of specialists whose services are quite expensive.
The following types of sewer wells are distinguished:
- Inspection wells, which are used to view and monitor the work of the entire sewer network and clearing blockages. Constructed only with a significant length of the pipeline.
- Pivot wells are installed at the places of pipeline rotation, and can also serve as manholes.
- Drop constructions are mounted in places where the pipes fall due to the complex topography of the soil.
- Nodal. The construction of such water units may not be everywhere. How to understand that the well was dug in the right place? It is quite simple - they are built at the wiring points of the node systems.
- The accumulative and filtrational wells serving for drains. They are designed for cleaning and accumulation. They are installed at the end of the pipeline system in those places where convenient access will be equipped for the assenizatorsky machine.
The material for sewer wells can be concrete or reinforced concrete, brick and rubble stone, plastic or wood. The process of work is no different from digging storage for drinking water, so it is better to deal in advance with the question of how to dig a well.
Signs that the water source is close to the surface
Before determining the location of the well, it is possible by some signs to understand that the water storage is at a shallow depth, here are some signs:
- in spring, especially during the period of snow melting, basements are flooded with water;
- very often a thick fog is formed on this site;
- Not far from the summer cottage there are reservoirs: rivers or lakes;
- the surface of the earth may be covered with moss;
- in arid hot summer near the water grows thick grass.
Not everyone knows how to dig a well in accordance with sanitary standards. You can not build it next to the sewer system, as well as a toilet and a compost heap.
Of great importance during the period of operation of the well is its maintenance, because it must be constantly kept clean, since various debris can get inside, and this will lead to a deterioration in the quality of well water.
In order to prevent access to pets by the well, a protective structure can be built around it. If for some reason the animal got into the well, you need to carry out the pumping of water and clean it from foreign objects. After this, disinfection is required. You can use a three percent chlorine solution, which is added to water and applied to the walls of the well. After these procedures, the well is closed and left for a day.Then the walls are thoroughly washed and the water is pumped out again until the smell of bleaching powder disappears.
The above steps will tell you how to dig a well with your own hands, keep it in excellent condition, and also provide everyone with tasty well drinking water.