How are nouns formed?
The noun is one of the most commonused parts of speech, called to name (or give a name) to some object: the object, the feeling, the animal, the weather phenomenon, the person, and so on, answering the questions "who?", "what?". As nouns are formed, it is necessary for every person to know, especially if his profession (for example: journalist, writer, writer, editor, etc.) is related to writing articles, literary works, essays, etc. Currently, the formation of nouns in Russian occurs in different ways. Therefore, in this article we will consider the most important and frequently used techniques and will dwell in detail on the suffixal way of forming nouns, as in one of the most colorful and multifaceted methods of creating new words.
Ways of word formation of nouns
- By rethinking the value of thelanguage of words, as well as through their complete separation from each other (the formation of homonyms). Example: the modern word "kettle" in the meaning of "bad or not at all versed in a particular subject person." Previously, it was used only in the sense of "vessel with a spout." This is a lexico-semantic word formation.
- The possibility of forming words from word combinations determines the lexico-syntactic method. For example: blood loss, pastime, etc.
- Morphological-syntactic method, especially in the manifestation of substantivization of adjectives, capable of acting both as a noun and as an adjective. For example: a patient, a military man, an assistant, etc.
- Morphological word formation is one of the mostrich ways to form nouns. The most common forms of its formation are: affixation, addition of bases and the suffix method.
- The prefix (prefix) method inthe word-formation of the noun's name is used less often than the suffix. Often nouns with prefixes are created from a verbal stem or an adjective having the same prefix.
- The non-suffixing way of word-formation is the basisprofessional speech (lining, blowing, heating, etc.). Sometimes this method is used in common speech (words: otpad, shout, etc.). Professionally-terminological vocabulary is much richer and vulgarity vernacular and spreads to the masses through the media (for example: positive, a fan, etc.).
The suffixal way of word formation
Nouns, created with the help of suffixes, can be represented in the form of four groups:
- The name of persons is the method of formation of nounson grounds (occupation, place of residence, properties, social belonging, religion, etc.). Suffixes are used -schik, -char, -etz, -nik, - ik, -tel, -ych, -ist, -anin, -ak (-yak). And separately it is necessary to single out the suffixes that form the patronymic: -ovitch, -now-a, -ch, -inich-a, -ych, -icchn-a, -ovich, -ev. Examples of words: clerk, coldman, teacher, financier, Ilinichna, Viktorovich.
- The abstract names are formed:
- from verbs by means of suffixes -ne, -enue, -k-a, -b (a), -ti, -on (i), -n (i), -one (s). Examples: admiration, shooting, relatives;
- from adjectives by means of suffixes-there is (-est), -in (a), -in (a), -out (a), -eth (a), -st (o) (-s). Examples: visibility , virgin land, whiteness, fatherland;
- Collective names are formed by the suffixes -st (o), -st (o), -n (i), -ezh, -b (a), -out (a), -j- (orthographically -e). Examples: the poor, young people, students.