How does air conditioning work in an apartment, car or mobile? The principle of the air conditioner
Climatic conditions in Russia are rarely pleased with a comfortable temperature. In summer, in some regions of our country, the heat reaches 40 degrees Celsius, and in the winter months the thermometer can drop to minus 35-45 degrees. In order for a person to stay in any place at any time of the year, let it be an office, apartment or car, be pleasant enough, and there is air conditioning.
What is air conditioning for?
In the heat conditioner allows you to reduce the air temperature to the desired, and in winter it can be used as an additional source of heat, as it has an additional heating function. Before you learn how air conditioning works, you need to get acquainted with its additional features. In addition to creating a comfortable temperature, the air conditioner dries the air, that is, it affects the humidity. At some points it is a plus, but somewhere it is a minus.
Many modern models of air conditioners clean the air from pollution, they are equipped with a special filtering function. The designs have special filters, the number of which depends on its modification. Models having several such purification systems provide multi-stage air cleaning.
The principle of operation of air conditioners
The principle of operation and design of air conditioners of various types are similar. The only difference is in the location of the air conditioning system and in its appearance. For a start, let's figure out what it consists of, and then find out how the air conditioner and the entire system work. Essential elements:
1. Fan - serves to cool the system.
2. Throttle - reduces the pressure of freon.
3. Condenser - turns the gas-freon into a liquid.
4. Evaporator - converts liquid freon to gas.
5. Compressor - compresses freon and makes it circulate throughout the system.
All parts of the air conditioner are interconnected by copper tubes. This applies to all elements except the fan. A cooler circulates through numerous channels, most often it is freon, taking either a gaseous or a liquid form.Gas in the form of steam enters the compressor, having a temperature not higher than 15 degrees under a pressure of 4-5 atmospheres. There it is compressed, respectively, the pressure increases 5 times, and the temperature of the freon rises to 90 degrees. Then hot freon enters the condenser, where it cools and releases heat, gradually turning into a liquid state. Then he gets into the throttle and goes into the evaporator, where the liquid freon is mixed with gaseous. When evaporating, it creates cooling. After that, freon re-enters the compressor, and the cycle closes.
Varieties of air conditioners
There are several types of air conditioners, although their operating principle is the same:
- Supply models use external air flow.
- Recirculation units operate in indoor air.
- Air conditioners with a recovery function combine the two methods listed above.
Types of air conditioners: split system
Currently, split-air conditioning systems or separate type installations are common, some parts of which are mounted indoors and the rest outside. For example, the compressor, the fan and the heat exchanger remain outside the room, and the unit with a remote control of a presentable appearance is mounted inside.Connect the two parts of the air conditioner through a through hole made in the wall.
Most split systems are used for heating, but it is not recommended to turn them on in severe frost, as this type of air conditioner works at a temperature not lower than 15 degrees. These systems do not provide fresh air from the street, but only clean, cool or heat the internal atmosphere of the room. Some air conditioners not only remove dust, but also destroy odors, harmful bacteria, and also ionize the air. Split system is the most convenient, economical and silent option.
Multisplit-conditioning systems have one more powerful external unit and several internal ones. How should this type of air conditioner work? The principle of operation remains the same, but this system is designed for air conditioning of large areas with many rooms and partitions. Its cost is quite high. Also expensive and difficult is its installation. But all costs will be fully justified in the future due to the effective operation of this equipment.
Types of indoor or indoor units for split systems
We already know how air conditioning works. Now we will get to know what kind of indoor units of split-systems are:
1. Wall mounted. These blocks have an average size, but they are able to cool large enough rooms (up to 60 sq.m.). These systems can serve only for cooling or only for heating, and there are also inverter models. Wall blocks have an excellent design and fit well into any interior.
2. Floor-ceiling. These indoor units are fixed in one place on the ceiling or wall, they can not be moved. The operation of these types of air conditioners is designed for large rooms, they practically do not take up space and do not interfere with anyone. Ceiling air conditioning systems are used in offices, beauty salons, cafes, canteens.
3. Channel and cassette units are real ventilation systems. Externally, they look like ceiling vents. Cassette units distribute air in several directions indoors, and channel units provide flow from the street.
Floor air conditioners
Floor air conditioners are a single mobile unit that consists of a compressor, a cooling circuit, and curtains for directing air flow.Hot air from this monoblock is pulled out through the hose to the street, sometimes it is connected to the ventilation hatch. This air-conditioning system has a lot of advantages, as the floor air-conditioner works in any place; it can be easily moved: transported to the country, used in an apartment, take with you when you move. For convenience of transportation, the floor air conditioner is equipped with special chassis. These air conditioners are not recommended to be installed in tightly closed premises, as the mobile air conditioner works qualitatively only in the presence of fresh air. Made by modern design, this air conditioner is a stylish addition to any room.
Car air conditioning
The principle of operation of the air conditioning system for the car, the nuances of their operation and control are often of interest to car owners. Basically, they care about how the air conditioner in the car works, how the air conditioning process takes place, what it is for. The formation and maintenance of the microclimate in the cabin occurs by adjusting the temperature of the air inside the car, while the unit is operating, humidity is reduced, purification occurs, and unpleasant odors are eliminated.The basic elements and principle of operation of the car air conditioner is the same as that of the room equipment.
It is very important to know how the air conditioner works in the car, because the microclimate affects the overall condition of the driver. At low temperatures, the human body begins to supercool, at very high, on the contrary, overheating occurs. In this regard, there is excessive fatigue, slowing down the reaction and other errors in driving a car, which can lead to an accident.
All types of air conditioners can create the optimum temperature for a person. Recently, models with ionization and moistening of air have appeared, which have a beneficial effect on the human condition, but on condition that the air conditioning system is carefully looked after. Do not forget that the air conditioners need to be cleaned and regular repairs.