Growing cauliflower: planting and care. The best varieties of cauliflower
Cauliflower is a useful vegetable for the human body. It contains many valuable substances that have a positive effect in the treatment of various diseases. To the vegetable was always on the table, you need to grow it first. How is planting cauliflower, how to care for it, what varieties exist, read the article.
Cauliflower is a common vegetable. Due to the appearance is often called curly. Her cultivation occurred in Syria, the cabbage then bore the same name with the country. For a long time, Arab countries were the place of growth, and only in the 12th century was it exported by merchants to Spain.
In the period of the Middle Ages, a vegetable from Syria goes to Cyprus, from where it was supplied to European countries for sale. Growing cauliflower in Western Europe began in the 14th century.Today, the vegetable is distributed and successfully grown in Europe, America, Japan and China.
In order to get a presentation of heads rich in vitamins and minerals, it is important to take into account the peculiarities of cabbage, and, most importantly, observe agrotechnical rules and techniques when growing a crop.
- Varieties of vegetables of this type tend to accumulate a lot of nitrates in the heads. Cauliflower is no exception. Care and cultivation of a healthy vegetable is carried out only if the seedlings are properly fed. Many gardeners use for this compost or fresh manure. It is strictly prohibited. It is the lack of potassium and fresh manure that create the ideal environment for the accumulation of nitrates. Such cabbage will not bring benefit.
- Nitrates in the heads accumulate in large quantities if cauliflower is planted too often. Care and cultivation in this case cause difficulties: some agrotechnical measures are taken at the wrong time. This is the cause of the accumulation of harmful substances.
- Vegetable cultivation is carried out in a moderately moist soil, so you need to constantly monitor that it does not dry out and cracked, otherwise you can not wait for a good harvest.
- Cauliflowers are planted in the beds, where tomatoes, cucumbers or potatoes were grown. Cruciferous cultures should not be its predecessors.
- Planting cauliflower on the same bed is carried out for three years. In the future, you need to change the place of growth of the vegetable.
Cauliflower bred in two ways, seed and sprouts. For the Far Eastern region, the latter method is more suitable. For a long time to harvest the inflorescences, planting cauliflower in the open ground is carried out three times per season.
There are early, middle and late varieties of cauliflower:
- Early varieties of culture.They begin to be planted in open ground in mid-April and continue until mid-May. The seedling by this time will reach the age of 30-60 days. Seeds for its cultivation are sown throughout the month of March, from the first to the last.
- Medium late varieties of this vegetable.Planting cauliflower in open ground is carried out throughout May, and sometimes until the middle of the next month. The age of seedlings is 35-40 days. Seeds begin to sow in the first ten days of April and end in May at the same time.
- Late varieties.When to plant cauliflower seedlings? Landing is carried out in the first decade of July. The seedling reaches by this time 30-35 days of age. For sowing seeds for seedlings used the entire first decade of June. Varieties of late cabbage do not have time to ripen in the garden. They are transferred to the basement, where the cabbage will grow.
Soil for seedlings
Planting cauliflower seeds is carried out in boxes or containers filled with soil, which you can buy at the store or cook yourself. For this, a soil mix is made, for which the soil from the garden is taken, peat and sand in equal proportions. Instead of peat and sand, commercial soil and perlite can be used. Cauliflower seedlings will feel comfortable growing in this soil.
First you need to prepare the seeds. Pre-soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection for 30 minutes. Then they dry a little and start sowing. It is better to use single cups, in each place a few seeds in case of bad germination. Growing cauliflower seedlings is carried out in a room with different temperature conditions.At first, the boxes with seedlings are kept in a room with an air temperature of 20 degrees Celsius.
Seeds will germinate in about five days. After the emergence of seedlings, the temperature in the room should be 7 degrees, the cabbage is not afraid of the cold. Under these conditions, the seedlings will not grow rapidly, and stretched upwards. For five days in the room you need to maintain this temperature, and then raise it to 15 degrees. 10 days after this, you can start picking up the seedlings.
Rassadny landing method
Growing cauliflower in open ground is most often carried out through seedlings. The beds are prepared in advance. Fertilizer is embedded in the soil when it is digging. Wood ash, superphosphate, urea, humus or rotted manure in the amount of 500: 50: 40 grams and 2.5 kilograms is applied per square meter of garden area. After that, lumps are broken, the surface is buried. Then the holes are filled and filled with ashes.
The planting scheme depends on the cabbage variety. Early vegetables are planted taking into account 60x30 centimeters, mid-season and late ones - 70x35. For landing, you can also use the scheme 50x50 centimeters.Wood ash in the amount of 50-70 grams and a liter of water is added to each hole. Cauliflower seedlings intended for planting in soil should be strong. From the elongated plants with pale leaves, full-fledged heads of cabbage will not grow.
A single cauliflower planting does not always work. Neighbors of the plant, such as lettuce, turnip, radish, spicy herbs compaction. They are planted in lines with the distance between them in one row.
In order for the seedlings to quickly take root, when planting it is deepened to the first leaflets, the apical bud must remain on the surface. Then the earth around the plant is compacted, irrigated and mulched. For this, dry soil is used. Landings cover for some time with a film, creating a greenhouse effect under it. After two weeks, the cabbage should spud up to a small height, 6-8 centimeters is enough.
Seedless growing method
Cauliflower is bred in many ways. Planting seeds in open groundcarried out in March. Cabbage seed, grown in the open air with clean air will soon catch up and even surpass the greenhouse seedlings in growth.
Growing cauliflower in open ground seed is rarely used. Before sowing, they need to be sorted out, all wicked ones should be deleted. The remaining planting material must be poured with hot water for 30 minutes, after which it is drained, and the seeds are quickly placed in cold water for cooling. The last soaking is done in a solution of potassium permanganate, for which the seeds are placed in it for a period of half a day.
For sowing in the beds, furrows are made with a depth of one and a half centimeters. Seeds are sprinkled with soil and well watered, for which a sprayer is used. If you water the bucket, crops can be accidentally washed.
Cauliflower is a moisture-loving vegetable. Drought tolerates poorly. How often to water the cauliflower? During the entire vegetative period, this must be done repeatedly, up to 4-5 times. Watering should be abundant: two buckets per square meter. They need to alternate with a slight soil moisture. Each plant is enough to pour two liters of water. Cabbage responds well to sprinkling. From it, the humidity rises, and the temperature drops.
After each watering or rain, the soil should be loosened so that a crust does not form.To preserve its moisture mulch. To do this, use peat, straw, humus. Especially the young seedlings planted in the ground need moisture. The first time it needs to be watered several times during the week. When you grow up, watering should be reduced, and then completely do them as needed. It is important that the water during irrigation in the beds for a long time did not linger.
The best growth of cauliflower is provided by organic fertilizers. Adding to the soil a mullein or bird droppings is carried out once every 10 days throughout the growing season. Mullein diluted with water 1:10, and litter - 1:15.
The first feeding of cauliflower is done under each plant. Its volume is half a liter, and the following - one liter. Cabbage is not against foliar fertilizing, for which urea, superphosphate, potash fertilizers in the amount of 20, 50, 20 grams are diluted in a bucket of water. Green mass is sprayed with the prepared solution weekly.
This is the most common culture of the species, which is most often found in the store. Its heads have an average weight - 700-900 grams, but can reach one kilogram.Cabbage is resistant to pests and weather conditions, thereby increasing its yield. Using the method of compacted planting, in the garden you can grow more plants, from which, respectively, and the harvest is richer.
This is an early cabbage, ripens in 65-110 days. In regions with a suitable climate, it is planted three times a year. It has a drawback - the yield indicators are low. But this cabbage with many virtues that overlap them. Good harvests are harvested by repeatedly growing cabbage in one season.
This variety was bred by breeders empirically on the basis of Roman cabbage - a hybrid of cauliflower and broccoli. Vegetable has a fantastic view. The composition of the inflorescence includes small pyramids of green color, having similarity with seashells. This hybrid has a thin, creamy-nutty flavor. Shelf life is small. To prolong it, the cabbage is frozen, while retaining all its beneficial properties. This vegetable very quickly became popular in all countries of the world.
Romanesko has other names: in Israel - Coral, in Poland and Germany - Pyramid, in Russia - Emerald Cup, Pearl. Known hybrids of the Dutch selection - Amfora, Veronica, Shannon.
This variety is bred by French breeders. It can be grown in almost all regions of our country, even in the Urals. This cabbage ripens early. It has a low resistance to cold. Seedlings may be subject to spring frosts, so it must be protected from them. In order for the formation of the heads to be successful, molybdenum or boron must be introduced into the soil. The snow-white, dense head has a rounded flat shape and an average weight reaching one kilogram. She is well covered with leaves. Cabbage has excellent taste.
This is a hybrid of the Dutch selection. It gives high yields, growing in the regions of the middle zone of our country. The solid head has a whitish yellow color and an ellipsoid shape. It is covered with leaves, weighs 1-1.6 kilograms. It has excellent taste. Cabbage is suitable for growing in the summer and autumn periods.
This common name combines cauliflower, the heads of which have yellow, green, orange, pink, purple, purple color. The best varieties of cauliflower, as well as its hybrids have different names and colors of the heads. These masterpieces have undoubted benefits.Growing up in the garden, they give it an exotic look.
Cauliflower will decorate any dish. But it must always be remembered that this vegetable is the whims of the traditional crops of this species; stressful growing conditions are not suitable for it. Heads do not differ in large size and quickly fall apart.
- Yellow and orange heads in Dutch F1 hybrids Yarik, Cheddar and Collage. Valued by a high content of carotene.
- Varieties of cabbage with green heads - Emerald, Universal, Moonlight; F1 hybrids - Travi, Green, Vitaverde. This cabbage is rich in oxidants with the ability to slow down the aging of the body.
- Heads in purple and purple - Graffiti F1, Purple, Lilac ball, Violet queen F1. These vegetables are rich in anthocides that benefit the vessels and the heart.
Vegetables are harvested when they are fully ripe, but not allowed until the cabbages become loose and buds bloom. With healthy plants with cut heads and powerful leaves, you can get a second harvest. For this purpose, one strong shoot is left on the stem. It is necessary to care for it, as for the main crop.New heads can weigh up to 500 grams.
Heads of cabbage with late planting times do not always ripen at the time of harvest. Such a cabbage is sent to the basement, where it matures. For this, a large clod of earth is left on the roots. Plants are placed at close range from one another, sprinkled with soil and watered.
Cauliflower is a light product for digestion by the body due to its low fiber content, the gastric mucosa is less susceptible to irritation with its juice. This vegetable is recommended for people with stomach ailments, as well as for children and especially diet.
Cabbage is useful for diseases of blood vessels, heart, liver. It is recommended for patients with diabetes. It normalizes cholesterol and blood glucose. The content of tartanic acid in the composition of the cabbage allows you to use it to combat extra pounds.
Regular consumption of cauliflower relieves a person from fatigue, helps the endocrine system to work, prevents the development of cancer tumors and even slows their growth. The healing substances of cabbage help eliminate toxins from the body.
This cabbage is especially useful for women. It gives skin elasticity, shine to the hair and firmness of the nails. Eating a vegetable, women become more beautiful. It is not contraindicated in pregnancy and breastfeeding. Helps with constipation. Eliminates women from gaining weight during pregnancy. Masks based on cauliflower prevent peeling of the skin and remove unnecessary fine wrinkles.
For eating use inflorescences, that is, the head. Leaves and flowers in rare cases go for cooking. The heads are first boiled, and then stewed or roasted. They are used for salting, pickling, canning, freezing. From them prepare broths, soups. Fresh vegetables are used to make salads, they are decorated with dishes. Leaves and flowers are used as additives to meat and vegetable salads, side dishes, soups. Experienced chefs prepare main dishes from them.
Cauliflower: diseases and pests
Cauliflower has weak immunity. It is affected by powdery mildew. More often when it grows in greenhouse conditions. The disease develops due to poor ventilation of the cabbage bushes, their excessive irrigation and compaction of the plantations. You can get rid of it with the help of antifungal drugs "Fitosporin", "Topaz" and others.
Cabbage may develop vascular bacteriosis after it is planted in the ground. It manifests itself in the form of pale leaves, which have lost elasticity. Pale yellow spots appear between the veins. The leaves gradually fade. Plant growth slows down. During the period of formation of heads on plants, mucosal bacteriosis develops. The heads are covered with black rot, to get at least some harvest fails.
Cauliflowers have pests, they can destroy the entire crop. Especially a vegetable is afraid of a cabbage fly, which lays its white eggs at a short distance from the ground on the stem. The fight against pest are insecticides. The solution is poured at the root, it should not fall on the plant. If heads are already tied, it is impossible to treat plants with insecticides.
A mole of cabbage is a no less dangerous pest. She lays eggs on leaflets. Caterpillars are very voracious. If you miss the time, they will eat everything. In the case of a strong spread of moths, the whole plant is sprayed.
To combat pests using folk methods. It is necessary to pick a burdock. Fill the third part of the bucket with it and fill it with water. Let insist three days.After which the solution is filtered. They are sprayed with vegetables 3-4 times in a row at intervals of a week.