Gender equality. Gender discrimination. Gender theory
Equality of people is one of the problems that humanity has been trying to solve over the past centuries. At first we got rid of slavery and serfdom, proclaimed all people — regardless of skin color, nationality and religion — free, possessing the same rights. When a certain balance in society was reached, women began to defend their place in the sun. They advocated gender equality, that is, gender equality, and many, including representatives of the strong half of humanity, supported them. Today, ladies are no less educated, intelligent, and purposeful than their other halves. So why do some men still believe that the place of a woman is exclusively in the kitchen? Let's try to figure it out.
Strong woman - a product of the era
And indeed it is. Agree, in the distant times of the primitive communal system, the roles were distributed by nature itself.Men with stronger constitution and iron will, went on a hunt and provided their darling and children with food, protected them, guarded them. Women reproduced offspring and guarded the hearth, cooked food, and looked after the head of the family. Since then, virtually nothing has changed. Until the end of the XVIII century, the representatives of the weaker sex had no other choice but to be a cook, a washerwoman, a cleaner and a courtesan. More was not required of them, for a while it suited everyone.
But over time, some of the women rebelled. They are tired of being physically and morally blasted around by men - people just like them. The fair sex managed to gain access to schools and universities, secured the right to marry out of love, not at the request of the parents, began to work, to provide for himself and his children. Gender equality was beginning to emerge. There were several reasons for this. First, for many years of humiliation, infringement of rights and freedoms provoked women to take radical measures, just to break free from "sexual" slavery. Secondly, men were no longer those strong and fearless “earners” who provided for the family and in case of anything they could protect against the enemy.They could afford to have another wife, leave their children, not work ... Women understood that they themselves could cope with a new role for themselves - to be the head of the family. First, from despair, and then simply from the realization that they are no worse than men.
The problem of gender equality arose particularly acute at the end of the XVIII century. Women began to demand equal rights with men. Social progress marched by leaps and bounds, democracy came to replace the monarchy and the echoes of the feudal system, general welfare improved ... The French revolution served as a signal to action. In 1789, radical ideas spread not only in Paris, but also in all parts of Europe. In London, for example, Mary Wollstonecraft wrote and published The Justification of Women's Rights, and the French woman Olympia de Gouges wrote the Declaration of Women's Rights. Gradually, it can be said, bit by bit, women of the weaker sex seek recognition of their rights, in particular legal ones: the ability to own and dispose of property, as well as the fate of their own children. The doors of prestigious universities in Cambridge and Oxford remained closed for them, but the ladies did not lose heart and were not lost.The desire to develop was so great that women themselves began to open universities and colleges, which gave a start in life to the first graduate medical specialists in the US and the UK.
While representatives of the higher strata of society tried to solve the gender issue in the field of quality education and decent employment, their sisters from the poorer classes worked in terrible and difficult conditions in factories. No, independence and self-esteem in this case were not their goal - they just tried to survive and earn the children a piece of bread. Looking at this injustice, women reformers realized that the key factor in solving the problem would be the right to vote. And for him to fight. The first campaigns started in the middle of the XIX century in London and Washington. However, the struggle in America has not brought success. In contrast to the more advanced in this regard, New Zealand, Australia, Norway and Finland, where the weaker sex gained the political right to vote even before the First World War.
The birth of feminism
When in 1914-1917, Europe was tormented by military battles, gender equality faded into the background.Women forgot about their principles and all the forces helped men at the front and in the rear. But already in the 60s of the XX century, the struggle resumed with a new force. In the United States of America, the Women's Rights Movement was formed, which soon migrated overseas and overwhelmed European countries. Feminism - that’s what the people around the world called it. It attracted the attention of society not only by attempts to solve equality issues, but also by bringing to the general discussion such issues as legalization of abortion and sexual violence.
Feminists have made the adoption of a number of laws for the benefit of women: now they could get a job on a par with men and get a decent wage. True, gender theory was not so soon able to be realized in practice. Only in the 90s of the last century did the movement radically change the established views of society, but still it is still very far from complete victory. First, some people look very critically at the slogans of feminists. Many men and even some women still believe that the fair sex is not smart enough to hold high government posts or even just leadership positions.Secondly, if in Europe and the United States, women who hold a family or run for president are no longer surprising, in some countries, especially Muslim ones, women are deprived of even elementary rights.
The essence of gender equality
Many people do not fully understand the meaning of this concept. Gender sociology describes it as an opportunity for representatives of both sexes on equal rights to take part in various spheres of private and public life. Equality in this case should not be regarded as the opposite of sexual difference - rather, it is the opposite of gender inequality. Its essence is to prove that both men and women have the same rights to employment, education, voting, self-realization, and so on. Gender inequality, which continues to flourish in different spheres of life, requires constant struggle against this negative and uncivilized phenomenon.
As for gender, this term sociology refers to the roles of both sexes, which they received at birth. They always depend on the specific circumstances: political, social, economic, cultural.The roles are influenced by racial, class and ethnicity, age, sexual orientation and even the resulting education. If a person’s biological sexual essence remains stable, then gender roles may change depending on the above factors. Recently, they have been joined by the influence of information technology, media propaganda and transformed cultural traditions.
The rules of behavior imposed by society have long been bored by representatives of both the strong and the weaker sex. There was an opinion that if you are a man, you must be aggressive, strong, strong, enterprising and dominant. At the same time, the woman is caring, compliant and merciful. But this is nothing but gender discrimination. Why can't the head of the family be soft? In principle, he can, but then he will instantly be labeled a henpecked, loser or even gay. In our society, men are forbidden to cry and complain about their fate, otherwise they will be put on the cross as a strong male and breadwinner. Although this is a violation of his rights: let him accidentally shed a tear, if there is such a need, the qualities of a leader will not suffer from this.
The same applies to women.If she raises her voice a little and tries to understand the situation, she is immediately called a brawler. It is accepted that the representatives of the weaker sex constantly make tantrums, therefore any manifestation of emotionality immediately falls under this concept. Gender characteristics of the sexes are not only their ability to express feelings, it is also self-esteem, which in women, due to the imposed stereotypes about the weakness of her sex, is always at a low level. Studies have shown that female students themselves have always rated their dissertations lower than those that their fellow colleagues did. Although such a judgment was in most cases unfair and unfounded. It is high time for society to start fighting all stereotypes and imposed principles and characteristics, since each person is individual and unique.
Gender sociology focuses on the proper education of boys and girls. The goal is to teach children the basic rules for creating an equal society, to be able to overcome imposed stereotypes, to cooperate with the opposite sex and respect each other. Enlighten the child need from the cradle.For example, show by example that a girl should not sit and cry if she was offended. Let the baby is engaged in martial arts, so she learns to protect herself and her loved ones. As a result, the future woman will become self-confident, which will also affect her ability to walk up the career ladder and overcome misfortunes in her personal life. As for the boy, he should be involved in housework. Since childhood, accustomed to washing dishes and taking out the garbage, he will not perceive his wife as a servant. Equality in this family will be respected.
Gender theory states that such education is not limited to home, school or work. The process of self-development in this area continues throughout life. Only by stepping over our own egoism and desires, extortion of historically established principles and imposed stereotypes, we can achieve success on this difficult path.
Violation of women's rights
First of all, it is domestic violence. Being stronger and pumped, men take advantage of this, often abusing it. According to the latest data, in Europe from 20 to 50 percent of wives, daughters, sisters suffer domestic violence. One in five women is not only beaten, but also raped.Gender discrimination manifests itself in all its glory when interviewing during recruitment, it is not without reason that the gender is still used in the questionnaire or resume. Company owners and chiefs prefer male cadres: they, in their opinion, are more disciplined and hardworking, do not go on maternity leave and do not take sick leave to sit with the child, they have an analytical mindset and logic is present in their behavior. Know: this is another myth. And, of course, a violation of women's rights. Many of them are able to bypass their male colleagues both in labor productivity and in its quality.
In many countries, a woman is still not perceived as a full-fledged member of society. In Saudi Arabia, they are forbidden to vote and even get behind the wheel, in Yemen they cannot testify in court, they cannot leave the house without the permission of her husband. In Morocco, a woman raped is considered not the victim, but the culprit of the incident. The rights of the fair sex are also most often violated in Mali, Mauritania, Chad, Syria, Pakistan, Iran and other countries in Africa and the Middle East.
Violation of the rights of men
No matter how ridiculous it may sound, the stronger sex also often suffers from the infringement of their rights. The gender type of men provides for dominant behavioral responses.Despite this, the heads of families are also amenable to violence from women: moral and physical. There are also cases of sexual abuse, however, they are usually registered among same-sex prisoners. Often men say that compulsory recruitment into the army is also a violation of their rights and freedoms. And we can agree with this: any violent actions of a person, society or the whole state in relation to an individual person imply its discrimination. A small violation of the rights of the representatives of the stronger sex is also a prejudice that they should be inferior to the woman in everything. Gender communication between the sexes provides that it is men who are obliged to give compliments, give presents and pay for their partner in restaurants. Which is also unfair, especially if these two work the same way and earn.
Men are also often restricted in their paternal rights. After a divorce, the court is on the side of the mother: the child always stays with her, if she is not an alcoholic, a drug addict or insane. The representatives of the stronger sex do not have reproductive rights, they do not decide whether to become their father now or later.Everything comes from the desire of a woman: if she wants a baby, she maintains a pregnancy, otherwise she does an abortion. And often the voice of the partner does not matter much. Violations of the rights of the stronger sex can be traced to the fact that they later retire, receive longer prison sentences. Women are now protesting: they are stronger and tougher, therefore there is such a tendency. But opponents of the feminist movement here can rejoice and smirk: if ladies struggle for equality all their life, then it should be strictly observed in everything and under any circumstances.
Trafficking in people and their organs
As for this category of violations of human rights, both women and men are equally affected. Therefore, it is worth to talk about it separately. Millions of cases of theft of adults and children are recorded every year: they are sold into sexual or labor slavery for the purpose of removing organs. Often, the victims themselves take a conscious risk by trying to travel abroad by any means. They sign questionable contracts and end up in a brothel or in the hands of a slave owner. The causes of a negative phenomenon are as old as the world: poverty, lack of education, unemployment, immorality, and greed.
Gender inequality manifests itself even in this seemingly common problem. After all, when searching for a potential slave, malefactors are more inclined to choose a woman - young, healthy, and beautiful. She will not only be able to work, but also provide sexual services. With regard to the sale of people to the organs, then most often the choice falls on children and adolescents with a young and strong body who do not have chronic diseases. Law enforcement agencies are struggling with these crimes, special services and commissions are being created, declarations and petitions are being signed, but it is not possible to eradicate it at the moment.
Equality of women and men has long been one of the main problems of modern society. In order to correct this mistake, all kinds of meetings and conferences are held. The first was organized by the United Nations in Mexico City in 1975. There, great progress was made in resolving the issue of expanding women's rights at the moment. A special Development Fund was also created, the main task of which was to finance all innovations in this area.
Gender equality was the basis of the "Women's Convention", signed with the goal of eliminating all forms of discrimination of the weaker sex. This is an international document that is legally binding and obliges the state to protect the rights of the fair sex, to protect them from all kinds of abuse and humiliation. They adopted a declaration in 1979, but only two years later it entered into force.
The purpose of the document is to eradicate the restriction of the freedoms and rights of women in any area of life, regardless of their marital status, color or religious belief. The countries that have signed it are obliged to periodically report to the UN on the results of the work carried out.