Gastric lavage: technique, algorithm. Methods of gastric lavage
Everyone can be in a number of situations,when knowledge about how to perform a gastric lavage, technique, algorithm of performance and ways of doing this simple action can save a life. How not to get confused in a difficult situation? And in what cases can not do without washing?
What is the stomach for man
The stomach of a person is an organ consisting of musclecloth, hollow inside. It is one of the important parts of the digestive system. This organ is located between the esophagus and the duodenum of the intestine. The volume of an empty organ of an adult is about half a liter. After meals, the volume increases to 1 liter, and when normal portions are exceeded, up to 3.5-4 liters.
Gastric lavage, technique (algorithm) of whichwill be described in this article, it may be necessary if the body perceived the incoming food as a danger. In this case, the food lump is retained in the gastric reservoir, not moving into the intestine, where the absorption of dangerous substances into the blood increases. There is nausea, vomiting, pain.
When the stomach is washed
There are a lot of indications for gastric lavage:
- The use of spoiled foods or poisonous fungi, leading to acute food poisoning.
- Intoxication of the body as a result of exceeding the permissible doses of alcohol.
- Poisoning by chemicals, poisonous substances, household chemicals, medicines.
- Problems with the permeability of the intestine.
- Atony of the muscle tissue of the walls of the stomach.
- Binge eating.
- Treatment of gastrointestinal and other organ systems.
The main stream of toxins is absorbed into the blood in the first 2 hours after poisoning. This means that the purification of the stomach is desirable after the appearance of the first symptoms of intoxication.
Three ways to wash
Depending on the condition of the patient and the severity of the effect on the body, gastric lavage can be carried out according to various methods. Methods of gastric lavage:
- "Restaurant method" that is, without the introduction of a probe.
- Washing through a thick probe.
- Using a thin probe.
Evacuation of stomach contents with the use of probes is carried out only by medical personnel.
There are a number of conditions that make it impossible to rinse the stomach. The technique (algorithm) of carrying out in this case does not play a role, since the procedure is contraindicated as a whole. Such states include:
- Internal bleeding.
- Acidic or alkaline burns of the larynx or GIT system.
- Problems with cerebral circulation.
- Loss of consciousness.
- Violation of reflexes, convulsions.
- Organic narrowing in the esophagus.
- Instability of the heart rhythm, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris.
In difficult cases, any manipulation with the patient is carried out only after stabilizing his condition.
Self-washing the stomach at home
Understanding how to rinse the stomach in a homeconditions, can significantly improve the state of food or alcohol poisoning. The victim should drink a large amount of water and induce a vomitive reflex. Preliminarily spend a little preparation for manipulation. Make a solution for washing, put beside a container (basin or bucket) for the contents of the stomach. Now you can wash the stomach with poisoning.
In total, small portionsdrink from 5 liters of liquid. In one run 2 cups are used, after which the gag reflex should work. If it does not work, then it is stimulated by pressure on the root of the tongue. This can be done with a tampon, a medical spatula or simply by putting your fingers in your mouth. It is important not to try to drink all the liquid at a time. Clearing the stomach will have to be repeated, otherwise the desired effect will not be achieved.
The same method is used in a hospital ifthe patient is not able to swallow the probe for any reason. An important detail is a large and multiple amount of fluid entering the stomach, just cause vomiting, putting your fingers in your mouth, not enough. In some cases, for example, when the victim has drunk a strong acid or alkaline solution, you can not induce vomiting, as a repeated burn of the esophagus will occur. Washing is permissible only through the probe.
Rinse the stomach with ordinary boiled water, butit is better to make a special solution for these purposes. Proper preparation will improve the effectiveness of the procedure. The liquid for gastric lavage should be slightly warm. The optimum temperature is 25-28 ° C. A hotter solution will increase the rate of penetration of toxins through dilated vessels. Cold solution can cause spasm.
For washing, the following formulations can be used:
- Weak saline solution. In 5 liters of warm water, dissolve 2 tablespoons of salt. This compound increases the reduction of the sphincter, preventing the penetration of toxins into the intestine.
- Pink solution of potassium permanganate. The solution should be light, slightly pink in color. Before use, it is filtered to avoid the ingress of insoluble particles. The composition has antiseptic and antimicrobial properties.
- A solution of baking soda. In this case, 2 full spoons of soda are taken for 5 liters of boiled water.
Prepare these compounds for washing at allit is difficult, and if a person knows how to rinse the stomach at home, then it is desirable to do this before the ambulance arrives. The earlier help is given, the sooner the patient will recover. Therefore, if there is a possibility to perform the procedure of gastric purification independently, this opportunity should be used.
Gastric lavage in a medical institution. Thick probe
The introduction of a gastric tube for washingconducts only qualified personnel. The thick probe is a rubber tube, the length of which is about 120 cm, and the diameter is 1 cm. The device is inserted through the oral cavity and esophagus into the stomach, then a funnel is added to the free end and liquid is poured in. The amount of wash solution is calculated based on the weight of the patient. Once injected for each kilogram of weight, 5-7 ml of liquid.
During the infusion of fluid, the medic retainsThe funnel is above the face, and when the solution reaches the mouth of the funnel, it is lowered into the wash tank. Manipulation is repeated until clean water is obtained. The contents of the first rinse are sent to the study.
The thin probe has 2 varieties: for the introduction through the mouth and for the introduction through the nose. This tool for washing is more often used for poisoning children. Babies who do not reach 4 months, rinsing is done only by a thin probe through the nose. The solution is injected with a special syringe, Janet.
When the probe is inserted through the nose, the patient can talk. The main thing is to check that the probe has got into the stomach, and not into the larynx.
Features of carrying out at children
The child is not able to understand that washingis necessary to alleviate the condition or save lives. That the baby does not twitch and does not interfere with the nurse, it is tightly swaddled or held. An assistant is required for the procedure.
The volume of injected fluid for a child is much less. A single dose of fluid for a newborn is about 50 ml, for a half-year-old child - 100 ml, for a one-year-old baby - 200 ml.
In both domestic and in-patient conditions, gastric lavage, the technique (algorithm) of which is as simple as possible, can be performed with the following errors:
- The victim is given a single large volume of fluid, which leads to the opening of the entrance sphincter of the stomach and the penetration of toxins into the duodenum.
- The amount of solution introduced and withdrawn is not controlled.
- The washings are prepared with impairments. The solutions are more concentrated than permissible, the potassium permanganate is not strained, the temperature does not correspond to the norm.
These errors can worsen the patient's condition, so the procedure must be treated responsibly.
In a dangerous situation, it is important not to panic, butact confidently and quickly. If necessary, an adult should begin washing the stomach at home, even before the arrival of physicians. It is desirable to deliver a small child to the hospital as quickly as possible, children can not be washed for up to a year at home.