Forms of government. Public administration system
Public administration is the most important process in terms of the reproduction of sovereign institutions of the country, the legitimacy of power, and the solution by political leaders of tasks related to the development of society. This phenomenon has a large number of entertaining characteristics. In particular, the forms and methods of government are interesting. What is their specificity in the Russian model of political structure?
What is public administration?
Modern Russian analysts associate the concept of government with the activities of government bodies, reflecting the need to implement the powers entrusted to them by law. There is another definition of the term, narrower. In accordance with it, public administration is the activity of only the executive authorities at the federal level or the subjects of the Russian Federation.
If we talk about the first definition, then it will be correct to refer any state structures to the state authorities - elective or those that are formed by means of appointments. So, for example, the President of the Russian Federation - the highest position in the control system of the Russian Federation - is elected by the people, and the Government is appointed. Similarly, a citizen who deserves to be the head of the region or the governor, if one does not consider certain periods when they were appointed at the suggestion of the President, is also chosen by the population. The government of the subject of the federation, in turn, is also appointed.
However, if we understand state administration within the framework of a narrower interpretation, then it should be understood as the activity of only those structures that are formed by means of appointments. In this case, the citizens working in them will be referred to as officials or government officials. Their task is related to the implementation of mainly administrative tasks, reflecting the implementation of strategic concepts in detail. In turn, elected positions will be called political. That is, within the framework of this model, it would be completely incorrect to call the President of the Russian Federation or the head of the region an official.Their tasks are political in nature and are associated with the identification of key vectors in the development of society and the state. It is at this level that the very concepts that the officials will have to implement are being developed.
Public administration in Russia is characterized by a number of signs. Among the key experts are the following.
First, public administration is an independent type of professional activity. The functions that officials carry out, as a rule, do not imply that they should be occupied by something else. Secondly, the activities of the authorities have a regulatory nature, that is, the sources of norms issued by them have legal significance. Thirdly, public administration is carried out in accordance with the provisions of existing laws. Fourthly, the activities of the authorities in the framework of the Russian model imply a hierarchy, the subordination of lower-level structures to higher ones.
Consider the main objectives for the achievement of which a system of government is created. Experts identify the following list of them.First, it is the satisfaction of the demands of society, the maintenance of a decent standard of living of citizens. Secondly, it is the improvement of political processes management systems, the strengthening of democratic institutions. Thirdly, it is the provision of civil rights and freedoms in relation to the population of the state.
It will be useful to study the key principles of government that are relevant to the Russian model. The basic experts include, in particular, democracy, implying the diverse participation of Russian citizens in government. Another major principle is federalism. It implies that the Russian state model of governance is implemented at two levels - federal and regional, subject to the division of powers between the highest authorities and structures in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation provided by law. The principle of legality also applies to the category of key. The work of any government bodies and officials must be carried out on the basis of current legal norms.
Forms of public administration
Having considered the concept of public administration, its key features, principles, and the specifics of goals, we turn to the consideration of its forms. It should be said that they are presented in a fairly large variety.So, what is a form of government? Under them usually understand the practical ways of expressing the activities of the authorities. Forms of public administration, as some experts note, are determined by the content of the actual functions of those or other power structures or officials, as well as the specifics of the tasks solved by the relevant institutions. As a rule, they are implemented according to current legal standards, and may also be accompanied by legal consequences. Actually, the last nuance is one of the criteria for the classification of forms of government.
That is, the determining factor in the framework of this scheme is the essence of the consequences of the practical activities of government bodies and officials. The forms of government, in accordance with this criterion, may thus be legal. Their essence assumes consequences that are legally significant. In turn, forms of government may also be illegal.
Another criterion for the classification of the phenomenon under consideration is content. In accordance with it, the main types of forms of government are lawmaking, contractual, and law enforcement.
Another criterion - orientation.Thus, the forms of management can be external or internal. The former are characterized by the activities of the authorities in the aspect of exercising their regulatory powers. Concerning the latter, interdepartmental work is implied, activities related to the functioning of the internal structures of the authority - departments, services, etc.
Legal forms of management
Consider how government can work within legal forms. The key element of the corresponding type of activity is the act. Its main property is legal significance. Its key feature is the unilateral will of the competent authority or a particular official, which is adopted in a procedural order, which is established by the relevant provisions of the law. Legal acts may condition the emergence, adjustment or termination of legal relations within the framework of administrative procedures.
Legal forms of government can be presented in the form of written sources or orally, have a different duration, operate in a particular region of the Russian Federation or throughout the country.There are other reasons for their classification. For example, this may be the body that issued the act of legal management. There are, therefore, sources signed, for example, by the President of Russia, the Government, regional authorities. Among the most common models of classification of acts - the name. It, as a rule, correlates, in fact, with the body that issued it. So, there are, for example, decrees - they are signed by the President of the Russian Federation. There are orders - they are issued by the Government.
Legal value of acts
Considering the legal forms of public administration, it is useful to examine such an aspect as the legal significance of the relevant acts. Experts identify the following set of characteristics, its components. First, the legal significance of the acts is that they objectify the activities of government bodies and officials. Secondly, they can act as independent legal facts. Thirdly, they may determine the significance of other acts, be a condition for their relevance.
Illegal forms of public administration
Government can also work in non-legal forms.Consider the nuances of this scenario. Non-legal forms of management are activities that usually involve the resolution of internal organizational issues, as well as nuances related to the material and technical supply of state structures. For example, in the framework of non-legal activities, meetings, round tables, panel meetings, etc. are held. Some experts refer to such activities also various kinds of inspections, inspections, etc. But there is a version that this kind of work is nevertheless more correctly attributed to the category of legal forms of management, since the possible prescriptions of the relevant bodies may well be characterized by a sign of command, obligatory for execution.
State and public aspect
Some experts distinguish state-public forms of government as a separate category. What is their specificity? The fact is that the interpretation of the meaning of this term depends to a great extent on the context, as well as on the specific industry in question. The generally accepted definition of what state-public management is among Russian experts has not yet been worked out.But among the popular interpretations is the understanding of this phenomenon as a joint activity of power and non-state structures to solve problems related to self-government at the level of specific institutions, industries, enterprises and other functional units that are of great importance in terms of the political development of a city, region or country in whole
There are other interpretations of the term. In accordance with them, for example, the appropriate type of management can be understood as the statutory delegation of certain powers by authorities to a level of non-state structures - institutions, public associations, enterprises. Another way to interpret the term is to create an environment within which the state will receive some feedback from society, its individual institutions, reflecting the practice of solving actual management tasks. Anyway, many experts agree that the institute of state-public administration in Russia is just beginning to take shape. Any established forms or precedents that would indicate the successful implementation of certain concepts reflecting the essence of such activities are so far rarely encountered.
About public administration methods
Having studied the main forms of organization of public administration, we will study the aspect of how the methods of the corresponding type of activities. There are a lot of criteria for their classification in the Russian expert environment. At the same time, the model in accordance with which three main methods of state administration are distinguished is popular.
- Conviction. In practice, this method can mean communication with the population of a region or a country as a whole through various dialogue tools. The most accessible are the media, various kinds of press conferences. Among the most large-scale examples of relevant communications is the teleconference of the President of the Russian Federation, which takes place every year. There are other channels of interaction between government and society, within which the method of persuasion is implemented. This may be, for example, propaganda work. It is conducted, as a rule, also with the participation of the media, but at the same time various public associations, parties, well-known politicians can be involved in cooperation. Persuasion is a method used not only for external communications of authorities and officials, but also working in the internal aspect of the functioning of state structures.So, for example, one group of officials participating in the procedure of making a decision in a collegial order can convince the other that this or that administrative act should be taken, corrected or refused to be given legal status.
- Promotion Some experts believe that this method is not typical for public administration. However, it is found in practice. It can be expressed in many different ways. For example, a certain authority may establish a regional competition or be a sponsor of a significant sporting event. Winners, thus, will be able to count on encouragement from the authorities. Internally, such methods of government can also be used. For example, this may concern such a nuance as premiums for high-quality work for officials.
- Compulsion. This point is determined by many experts as a key one. Moreover, if the methods of public administration described above, as a rule, are not connected with the adoption of legal acts, then the considered variant directly reflects the work of the authorities with them.Since coercion must be subject to the valid provisions of the law. As for the external aspect of public administration, this method is always accompanied by the issuance of legal acts. In turn, the internal forms of the relevant activities may be limited to certain oral orders or regulatory sources, which, according to a number of signs, are still incorrectly classified as a legal act: for example, the order of the head of a certain state service on the reorganization of any of the departments.
Signs of public administration methods
Consider what are the key features characterized by methods of government. First of all, we can note their target orientation. In addition, their content must comply with the level of authority of the subject of management. As a rule, public administration methods are characterized by certain implementation conditions — geo-referencing, office coordinates, signs of the target group of management objects. Note that both forms and methods of government must meet the criterion of legality.That is, persuasion, encouragement, or coercion are activities that, before practical implementation, are to be compared with current legal provisions contained in regulatory acts.
The ratio of state and municipal government
Having considered the concept of forms of government, as well as their methods, it will be useful to study one very interesting aspect. Namely, how does the type of activity in question relate to the work of municipal authorities. It is known that, according to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, an independent institution of local self-government should develop in Russia. How do state and municipal government relate?
To begin with, let's look at what distinguishes the corresponding levels of organization of political power. State power is a system of governance institutions organized by means of a vertical - from higher structures at the federal level to regional ones. If we talk about the Russian model, either the population of the country as a whole takes part in the formation of the relevant structures (electing the President, the State Duma deputies, who subsequently appointed officialsworking in ministries, agencies, services), or residents of a particular region (choosing the head, governor, deputies of the State Council of the subject of the federation). The people elected to these positions, in turn, form their executive offices. Such is the system of government in Russia.
In turn, municipal authority is a combination of political institutions at the level of a specific city or district. They, in turn, are formed with the direct participation of the population of the respective settlements or administrative units. It is assumed that the activities of state authorities at this level will be inferior in the effectiveness of the work of municipal structures. This may be due to different reasons. Among the main ones - officials from local residents better understand the specifics of local society, business, and cultural aspects. They are known personally, they are trusted, as a rule, more than representatives of state authorities. Actually, these are factors of the fact that at the constitutional level the considered models of governance are differentiated. True,the practical effectiveness of self-government depends not so much on the opportunities open at the level of legislation, but on the development of municipal institutions, as well as on the practical willingness of the population to participate in the local political process.
At the same time, state and municipal management, if again talking about the model operating in Russia, is carried out in the framework of very similar forms. It can be said that all the aspects that we considered above are also characteristic of the institutions of local self-government. After all, the specificity of the tasks facing the institutions of municipal government, in general, is the same as in the case of government bodies.
What, then, is the key criterion for differentiation? The forms of state and municipal government, as we have defined above, are generally similar. However, there is a difference, and it is significant - in the competences characteristic of a particular level of realization of power, as well as in the mechanisms of accountability of certain government structures. In the case of state power, the final authority is the highest executive body vertically.In municipalities, such acts are the mayor’s office, which, in turn, bears mainly only the legally established mechanisms of responsibility for possible violations in its activities. But there are areas that fall under the exception. One of those is the budget process. Many Russian municipalities are building their economic system at the expense of allocations from the federal or regional budgets. Accordingly, local governments may be accountable for the development of budget funds to the competent state authorities.