Farce is ... History and development of the genre
In modern literature there are a large number of genres and their branches. Some of them arose relatively recently, whereas the history of others has more than one century. This article will describe the history of the origin of just one of these genres - farce.
The appearance and development of farce as a genre
Farce is a comedy genre that originated in Western European medieval theater. It originated in the seventh century, but as an independent genre it only emerged in the second half of the fifteenth century. The main period of its development is considered the XIV-XVI century. Among the sources of the farce are the performances of wandering comedians and carnival games during the Maslenitsa. The stories of the comedians determined the themes and dialogues, and the carnival performances determined its mass character and dynamic playful nature. Later they begin to fill the mysteries with farces (hence its name), from which he stood out as an independent genre.
Fars in the medieval theater
Unlike other genres of the medieval theater, allegory and didactism are completely uncharacteristic of farce. After all, it is based on real life events, jokes. Farce plays reflect quite life-like everyday situations. However, there are no individualized images here yet. Instead, there are types of masks, such as a cunning servant, an unfaithful wife, a boastful soldier, a hapless student, a pedantic scholar, a charlatan-doctor, and others. Heroes of farces act directly: they fight, swear, argue, exchange puns. In the presentation of a lot of physical collisions, eccentrics, slapstick, acute and dynamic situations that quickly replace each other. Due to such changes, as well as the free transfer of action from one place to another, the plot unfolds fairly quickly. Moreover, the heroes of the farces not only made fun of the comedy of the provisions, but also made fun of certain phenomena and features.
Farce in European and Japanese theaters
European farces were mainly staged by amateur actors. The authors of medieval comic plays are mostly unknown (often farces were compiled collectively). It is known that farces wrote F.Rabelais, C. Marot, preserved several farces of Margarita of Navarre. The most popular in the 15th century was a cycle of French farces about Patlen, a lawyer, who talked about the adventures of a famous folk hero, vividly depicted the life of a medieval city, and showed a number of colorful figures. In general, it is on French soil that this genre - farce - begins to flourish.
The genre of farce (Kyogen) existed in the Japanese theater "No": it was formed in the XIV century. The Japanese farce is a genre that was closely associated with folklore (satirical and everyday fairy tales, anecdotes). Like the European counterpart, Kyogen was a small household scenes on material borrowed from life itself. The main characters mocked by the Japanese farce are quack monks, stupid princes, their cunning servants, and peasants. The basic principle of his game Kyogen put forward a comic in conjunction with the truth of life. Farces in Japan were performed as interludes between dramas.
Significance in the history of world theater
Fars is an art movement that has had a great influence on the further development of world theater. It is thanks to him that the English interludes and the Spanish pasos, the German fast scenes and the Italian comedy of masks develop.In the 17th century, farce, not without success, competed with the “learned” humanistic drama, and the synthesis of these two traditions led to the creation of Moliere’s drama.
Generally speaking, farce is a kind of link between the old and the new theater. Elements of it can be seen in Shakespeare and Lope de Vega, Goldoni and Beaumarchais. And although at the end of the seventeenth century the genre surrendered its powers as a literary comedy, it was revived again at the end of the nineteenth century. The dramatic art of our time knows many works of this genre (“The Suicide” by N. Yord-Man, “The Great Deadtwort Zateya” by M. de Gelderod, “Zoykin's Apartment” by M. Bulgakov, “The Risk” by E. de Filippo, “They Stole the Code” A Petrashkevich, etc.).
Plays in this genre are still being created. Farce is a play in literature with elements of comedy and mysteries, so it is not surprising that for many centuries people continue to love and respect this branch in art. Many young creators once again resort to the use of farce, however, more modern, urgent problems are being mocked, which find an echo in the hearts of modern viewers.