Encelopathy of the brain. Causes and types

Encelofapatiya brain can be caused by various pathological conditions and some diseases. This disease is both congenital and acquired. Its congenital species is caused by abnormal brain development in the perinatal period (intracranial birth injury, brain hypoxia), and metabolic defects. Acquired encephalopathy develops due to the effect on a person of damaging factors after his birth.

brain encephalopathyTypes of encephalopathy

Depending on the cause and pathogenesis of encephalopathy of the brain are of the following types:

1. Post-traumatic is a long-term or late effect of a brain injury.

2. Toxic (for example, alcoholic encelopathy), which develops due to the effect on the body of various substances, such as ethyl alcohol, barbiturates, bacterial toxins.

3. Radiation - due to the negative impact on the brain radiation ionizing.

4.Metabolic develops due to metabolic disorders or diseases of internal organs. With some ailments that are accompanied by the death of liver cells, toxic substances are not neutralized, but get into the bloodstream. Thus, they have a negative impact on the brain.

alcoholic encephalopathy5. There are also other, more rare encephalopathies - pancreatic, hypoglycemic, hyperglycemic and hyperosmolar.

6. In a separate group can be distinguished vascular encephalopathy. They occur due to chronic circulatory disorders of the brain due to atherosclerosis, hypertension, impaired outflow of venous blood.

What is the basis of brain encephalopathy

encephalopathy in childrenOxygen starvation (also called hypoxia) is the basis for the development of all types of encephalopathy. In addition, toxins (endogenous and exogenous) are also of great importance. They exacerbate the metabolism of the brain. The general mechanism of development explains similar morphological changes. These are small foci of necrosis, diffuse atrophy and swelling of the brain, microhemorrhages in the medulla, proliferation of glial cells, congestion of the membranes and their swelling.The severity, location of the lesion and the degree of impaired blood flow are features of various types of encephalopathy.

Clinical manifestations

Encelofapatiya brain can manifest itself in different ways. Early signs are a decrease in memory and mental performance, insensitivity to the new, lethargy during the daytime, sleep disturbance, tinnitus, headaches, general weakness, irritability, and mood swings. When examined by a neurologist, early brain encephalopathy may be characterized by a decrease in the acuity of hearing and sight, the presence of certain pathological reflexes, increased muscle tone, autonomic disorders, and a lack of coordination. In the later stages, neurological syndromes (pseudobulbar or parkinsonian), mental disorders, severe pain in the head are observed.

Forecast

Encelofapatiya brain is a serious disease that requires immediate treatment to the doctor. With timely diagnosis and proper treatment, serious consequences can be avoided. Encelofapatiya in children requires special attention, careful and timely treatment.

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