EDS is an electronic digital signature. Key EDS
EDS is an electronic digital signature. It can be used to establish whether the information contained in the electronic document has been distorted since the fact of the signature generation, and also allows you to confirm the ownership of a particular document to the holder.
Deciphering basic concepts
Each electronic signature must be confirmed by a special certificate that certifies the identity of the owner. You can get a certificate in a special center or from a trusted representative.
The certificate is owned by an individual to whom the certifying center has issued an electronic signature certificate. Each owner has two keys to the signature: open and closed. The private key of the ES allows you to sign electronic documents, you can use it to generate an electronic signature. It is kept confidential as a pin code from a bank card.
The public key features include signature authentication on documents. He is associated with a closed "colleague" in an unambiguous order.
According to law
The federal law "On electronic digital signature" divides ES into several types: simple ES, enhanced unqualified and qualified ES. Using a simple electronic signature, you can confirm the creation of an ES for a specific person. This is done by using passwords, codes, and other means.
A reinforced unqualified EDS is the result of a cryptographic transformation of information that is produced by means of an EDS private key. Using such a signature, you can identify the person who signed the document, as well as detect, if any, changes that have occurred since the moment of signing the papers.
The same features are also provided by enhanced qualified electronic signature, however, for its creation, an EDS check is performed using crypto-protection tools certified by the Federal Security Service. Certificates of such a signature may be issued only at an accredited certification center, and nowhere else.
According to the same law, the signatures of the first two types are equal to a handwritten signature on a paper document.Between the people performing any operation using an ES, it is necessary to conclude an appropriate agreement.
The third type (qualified EDS) is the equivalent of not only a handwritten signature, but also a seal. Thus, documents certified by such a signature are legally binding and are recognized as regulatory authorities (FTS, FSS and others).
Application for legal entities
Currently, the most commonly used e-signature for a legal entity. Digital signature technology is widely used in electronic document management. The purpose of the latter may be different: external and internal exchange, documents may be of a personnel or legislative nature, organizational, administrative or commercial and industrial, in a word, everything that can be done solely by signature and seal. Registration of EDS should be made in an accredited center.
For internal workflow, a digital signature is useful because it allows you to quickly initiate the fact of approval of papers that organize internal processes. EDS allows the director not only to sign documents while away from the office, but also not to store piles of papers.
In the case of intercorporate workflow, an electronic digital signature is one of the most important conditions, because without it, digital papers have no legal force and cannot be used as evidence in the event of a lawsuit. An electronic document signed by a strengthened EA retains its legitimacy even after long-term archiving.
EDS is indispensable for reporting to regulatory authorities. Many documents can be submitted electronically instead of carrying a whole pile of forms. A client can not only choose the time and not stand in a queue, but also submit reports in a convenient way: through 1C programs, portals of government agencies or separate software designed specifically for this purpose. The fundamental element in this process will be EDS. For a legal entity that received an electronic signature certificate, the main criterion should be the reliability of the certification center, but the method of delivery is not important.
Most citizens came across the term "electronic signature" on various websites.One way to verify an account, for example, on a portal that provides access to a variety of government services, is to confirm by means of an electronic signature. Moreover, the EDS for individuals allows you to sign any digital documents sent to a particular department, or receive signed letters, contracts and notifications. If the executive body accepts electronic documents, then any citizen can send a signed digitally signed application and not waste his time on filing papers in a queue.
Analogue of EDS for individuals is a universal electronic card into which a reinforced qualified electronic signature is embedded. UEC has the form of a plastic card and is a citizen's identification tool. It is unique as a passport. Through this card, you can perform many actions - from paying for and receiving public services, to replacing documents such as a medical policy and a SNILS card.
A universal electronic card can be combined with an electronic wallet, a bank account and even a travel ticket, in a word, with any of the documents that can be taken in digital form.Is it convenient to carry only one document? or is it easier to keep everything in paper form? This issue has to be resolved by every citizen in the near future, because technology is taking root ever stronger in our lives.
Also documents signed by ES are used for electronic trading. The presence of a digital signature in this case ensures customers that the offers at the auction are real. In addition, contracts not signed with the help of the EOC are null and void.
Electronic documents can be used as evidence in cases before an arbitration court. Any certificates or receipts, as well as other papers, certified by a digital signature or other analogue of the signature, are written evidence.
The document flow between individuals takes place mainly in paper form, but it is possible to transfer papers or enter into contracts using an EDS. Remote workers can use a digital signature to send electronic acceptance certificates.
How to choose a certificate
Since there are three types of electronic signatures, citizens often have a question about which certificate is better.It should be remembered that any electronic signature is an analogue of a handwritten signature, and at the moment the legislation of the Russian Federation establishes that a person has the right to use them at his discretion.
The choice of a digital signature directly depends on the tasks that will be solved through it. If submission of reports to the regulatory authorities is being prepared, a qualified signature will be required. For intercorporate workflow, it is also most often that a qualified electronic signature is required, because not only does it give documents legal force, but it also allows you to establish authorship, control changes and the integrity of papers.
Internal document management can be carried out with all types of electronic-digital signatures.
How to sign a document EDS?
The main question for those who need to use a digital signature for the first time is how the document is signed. Everything is simple with the papers - I signed and gave, and how to do it on a computer? Such a process is impossible without the use of special software. The program for EDS is called a crypto-provider. It installs on a computerand already in her environment various activities are carried out with the forms.
There is a fairly large number of crypto-providers, both commercial and free. All of them are certified by government agencies, but if interaction with 1C: Enterprise is required, the choice should be stopped on one of two products: VipNet CSP or CryptoPro CSP. The first program is free, and the second will need to buy. You should also be aware that when installing two crypto-providers at the same time inevitably the occurrence of conflicts, therefore, in order to work correctly, one of them will have to be removed.
Convenient, according to user feedback, the application for the formation of a digital signature is called CyberSafe. It not only allows you to sign documents, but also works as a certification center, that is, this program checks the EDS. Also, the user can upload documents to the server, so the signed contract or certificate will be available to all specialists of the enterprise who have access to the program, and will not need to be sent to everyone by e-mail. On the other hand, it can be done in such a way that only a certain group of people can access.
EDI - Mandatory or Not?
Many enterprises have already appreciated that EDS is a convenience, and electronic document management (EDM) saves time, but using it or not is an exclusively personal choice. It is not necessary to connect an operator to carry out the EDT, by agreement you can use regular e-mail or any other method of electronic transmission of information, it all depends on the agreement between the participants in the exchange.
The organization of any electronic document management is associated with certain costs, in addition, you will have to install and configure a program for signing documents - a cryptographic provider. This can be done either on your own or by using the services of specialists installing the software remotely, even without visiting the client’s office.
EOC in the internal EDI
In the case of intercorporate turnover, the pros and cons are immediately understandable, with positive sides in a clear majority. Among the shortcomings, it is possible to point out only the cost of the EDS key, the organization of the software (even if it is a one-time waste), as well as minimizing the personal meetings of company representatives and managers, but if necessary, the meeting can also be organized.
But what will be useful for electronic document management within the enterprise? How will the cost of supplying all employees with EDS keys pay off?
Using digital documents saves time: instead of printing the necessary paper first, and then looking for it among a pile of printouts or even going to another room, if you use a network printer, an employee can sign and send everything without getting up from the table. In addition, the transition to EDM significantly reduces the cost of paper, toner and printer maintenance.
Digital documents can also be a confidentiality tool. An electronic signature cannot be falsified, which means that even if an employee or manager has ill-wishers inside the company, they will not be able to perform any document substitution.
Often, innovations are made with difficulty, so that at first it may be difficult for employees to get used to the new format of filing documents, but as soon as they appreciate the convenience of EDS, they no longer want to go back to running around with papers.
Electronic-digital signatures appeared relatively recently, so many find it difficult to perceive them as a real analogue of the usual paper documents.In many enterprises, a similar problem arises: employees simply do not consider the contract signed until a real seal and signature are on the paper. They use scans from paper documents, easily losing their EDS key. To overcome this psychological barrier will help ... another piece of paper. Officially certified by a “wet” signature, the provision on electronic document circulation will make it clear to employees that this is a serious thing, and digital documents should be treated in the same way as analog ones.
Another problem may arise in the educational part. At many enterprises employ employees aged. They are valuable personnel, experienced in their field, have great experience, but it is quite difficult to explain how to use digital signature, because they just recently engaged in the development of e-mail, but here everything is much more complicated, and there are also many nuances.
The task of training can be transferred to the IT department or resort to the help of third-party specialists. Many companies conduct computer training and courses for their employees, where they are explained the basics of working with e-mail and various programs.