Economy of Moscow. History and modernity
In terms of area and number, Europe is second only to Istanbul, but it is partially in Asia. The economy of Moscow is dynamically developing, which makes it one of the most attractive cities for doing business not only in Russia, but also in Europe. Many global corporations have their offices in the Russian capital.
The structure of the GRP of Moscow
The dynamics of the Moscow economy demonstrates stable growth, well ahead of even the national one. While there has been a decline and stagnation in the Russian economy, the economy of many Russian regions has begun to grow. Moscow is not only no exception to this trend, but also actively confirms it.
Despite the fact that at the beginning of the 2000s, the process of bringing industrial enterprises outside of Moscow was actively started, heavy industry still occupies an important place in the city’s economy.
However, the leading position in the structure of the gross regional product is occupied by the service sector and trade.Finance also plays an important role, as evidenced by the fact that more than half of all banks in the country are registered in Moscow. In addition, two stock exchanges are located in the capital.
Despite the fact that industry in the urban economy occupies only a small share, Moscow remains the largest industrial production center in the country. The industrial enterprises of the city of Moscow specialize in various areas from precision instrument making to ferrous metallurgy and rocket production.
A large number of enterprises serving the country's defense complex are concentrated in the city. Such enterprises include the Khrunichev center, manufactured by MiG, the Almaz-Antey concern, the Vympel ICD.
An oil refinery, the Red October confectionery factory and the Trekhgornaya Manufactory also operate in Moscow. Until recently, such large enterprises as the Tushinsky Machine-Building Plant, the Moscow Tire Plant, the ZIL Plant, and the Serp and Molot Metallurgical Works worked in the city. The territories of some plants (such as ZIL) are landscaped, while others are still waiting for their investor.
The history of the plant "Hammer and Sickle"
The first open-hearth furnace of the Association of the Moscow Metal Plant, which worked on fuel oil, was launched in 1890. Thus began the history of one of the largest enterprises in Moscow.
In 1913, 90 thousand tons of steel per year were smelted in seven open-hearth furnaces. The range of factory products consisted mainly of simple iron, wire, nails and bolts, and most production operations were done manually, which required a large number of workers. By 1917, the plant employed two thousand people.
Immediately after the revolution, the plant was nationalized, and production on it fell sharply. The contribution of the plant to the economy of Moscow has decreased significantly. In 1921, the plant had a new director, Burdachev, who made a decision in principle to fully restore production in the shortest possible time. In 1922, the company was renamed the Hammer and Sickle Factory.
By the end of the 30s, the plant increased production to the level of 1913, but the war soon began.
During the Great Patriotic War, the plant worked intensively for the needs of the front, for which he was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor.Immediately after the war, a new phase began in the history of production. A group of workers received a state award for developing a new technology that uses oxygen to intensify processes in an open-hearth furnace.
In 1950, the team was again awarded, but already for reducing the time required for smelting one portion of steel in the furnace. In the same decade, the plant was gasified, which made it possible to significantly increase the quality and volume of products produced.
Thus, we can safely say that throughout its existence, the plant was the center for testing new technologies in the production of steel and metal products.
However, despite the glorious history of the plant, by the beginning of the XXl century it became obvious that the existence of such a large industrial production in the territory of a multi-million city is fraught with certain risks, and the plant itself needs to modernize a significant number of industries and update all processes. In 2008, it was decided to transfer the entire production to the Smolensk region, to the city of Yartsevo.
Moscow in the XXl century
In the XXl century in the structure of the economy of Moscow, like any other European city, occupies an important place tourism.
Historical monuments, attractions and numerous cultural events, and festivals attract hundreds of thousands of tourists every year. By popularity among foreigners with capital only St. Petersburg can compete.
However, not only international, but also domestic tourism is of significant importance for the economy of Moscow. A huge number of Russians are eager to visit the capital of the country during national holidays, school holidays and during personal vacations.