Districts and cities of Dagestan: a list of settlements
The Republic of Dagestan officially exists since 1921. She is very young in this respect, although some cities are very ancient. This is a real country of mountains, where most of the territory is located at high altitude. Despite this, the cities of Dagestan can hardly be called alpine, because most of them are located closer to the Caspian Sea, and the most significant are located on a narrow strip along the coast.
Districts and cities of Dagestan
The capital of the republic a little later than its formation was the city of Makhachkala, and today it is the administrative center. How many cities in Dagestan, it is easy to see on the map and count them on fingers. In total, there are 10 cities in the republic, each is the administrative center for its urban district. The territory of the republic since 2013 has been divided into 4 large territorial districts. Each district can be assigned an appropriate list of cities in Dagestan.
- Central District: Makhachkala, Kizilyurt, Buinaksk, Kaspiisk and Izberbash.
- Northern District: Yuzhno-Sukhumsk, Kizlyar, Khasavyurt.
- The southern district includes the Dagestan lights and Derbent.
- The mining district includes Khunzakhsky, Botlikhsky, Akushinsky and many other areas.
So, how many cities in Dagestan, we figured out, but in addition to them, there are still urban-type settlements (there are 12 of them). The territory of the republic is also divided into municipal districts, altogether there are 41 of them, and there are settlements in them.
Brief description of cities
As a rule, the major cities of Dagestan are located on a flat territory in the coastal zone. All of them used to be small settlements, where the inhabitants were engaged in traditional crafts, until in the twentieth century, in Soviet times, the industry began to develop actively. In the Republic of Dagestan, not only agriculture is developed, but also various kinds of industry, although during perestroika many enterprises fell into disrepair. The ethnic composition of the population is very diverse; Dagestanis and Russians live here, as well as other representatives of different nationalities.
It is the largest city in the republic of Dagestan, its population is 588 thousand people.He is also the capital, political and economic center.
Once on the site of the city there was Tarki-aul, here caravans stopped, which went to the ancient city of Derbent. In 1844, Petrovskoye fortress appeared here, and then the settlement was named Petrovsk. The development of the city began at the end of the XIX century, when the railway was built from Rostov to the capital of Azerbaijan, Baku. Industrial enterprises began to appear here, and the population gradually grew. In 1921, the city acquired a new name - Makhachkala, the name comes from the name of the local revolutionary Makhach Dakhadaev.
In the 30s the city began to flourish. Houses were built, streets were equipped, water pipes, hospitals and schools appeared, and in some places defense enterprises. With the beginning of the 90s, the economy fell into decay. Businesses closed. In addition, radicals of extremist Islamic movements began to appear here. Despite this difficult period, the city is gradually being restored and landscaped. Today it is one of the most significant cities in the Caucasus, it is a scientific and economic center.
Derbent is a real pearl of the Caucasus.Having been here, you can see how the cities in Dagestan can be beautiful, they have a unique architecture, which blows antiquity. The combination of interesting culture with stunning nature makes this republic very promising in terms of tourism. Impressive photos of the city in Dagestan called Derbent - proof of that.
Derbent is a very interesting historical city. It is located in the so-called Caspian passage. This is the place where the Caucasus Mountains are located closest to the Caspian Sea, there is only a small strip of plain 3 kilometers wide. It is warm here, the average temperature is +13 degrees, a lot of sunny days throughout the year. This city is one of the largest in terms of population, it ranks second in the republic of Dagestan after the capital, Makhachkala.
It is believed that this is one of the oldest cities in the world. Its history lasts for 5 thousand years, although in modern times it is officially considered that only 2 thousand years. There are disputes over this. In Soviet times, it was assumed that the city was founded 2700 years ago, since it was mentioned in ancient sources of the 8th-7th centuries BC.Such a point of view would be considered official if there were no traces of settlements of the early Bronze Age, and their age is 5 thousand years. It is officially accepted that the city is only 2,000 years old; nevertheless, even this figure is impressive.
The name of the city is Persian, it means "Closed gate". It can be assumed that these gates were closed to the invading conquerors. In ancient sources, these places had a similar name - “Caspian Gates”. This city was a strategic point, many sought to take it under their rule. At one time, the Scythians, as well as the Cimmerians, Sarmatians, Huns, Parthians, Khazars and Turks visited it. The Romans and the Greeks fought for the Caspian Gates. The city was at one time under the rule of Tamerlane. In 1813 he became part of the Russian Empire. Currently 120 thousand people live in the city, it is gradually being improved and developed.
Sights of Derbent
The main attraction of Derbent is its fortress walls. The Derbent fortress was built by the Persians in the 6th century under Shah Khosrow I. It was erected to protect against the Khazars and other nomadic peoples from the north.For the construction, instead of the previous masonry, more reliable, uncured stone blocks were used.
The Naryn-Kala Citadel is located on a hill 3 kilometers from the sea. Two walls stretch from it to the shores. In the east, the fortress wall rushes to the sea almost half a kilometer. The fortress of Derbent in 2003 was included in the UNESCO list. Inside the fortress there is still a very ancient church, which miraculously survived from the V century.
The Juma Mosque is the main religious building of Derbent, and indeed of the whole of Dagestan. In addition, it is the oldest mosque in Russia, for a long time it was the only one in the southern part of Dagestan. Besides her, there are several other ancient mosques. This is the Minaret Mosque, Bala Mosque, Kirkhlyar Mosque.
Interest may also cause museums in the city. For example, an unusual carpet museum, it is located in the Armenian church. In Dagestan, carpets are still traditionally woven by hand, and you can see beautiful ornaments and patterns on them.
This city got its name due to a very unusual phenomenon. As a result of the earthquake in 1904, gas emissions occurred here, which were similar to torches.Soon in these places began to open small businesses. The settlement began to develop slowly; the official date of foundation was 1914. A settlement acquired its urban status only in 1991.
Dagestan Fires is the youngest city in the republic, it is a satellite of Derbent. There is a glass factory here, and incendiary bottles were delivered from here during the war. Today it is the largest enterprise in the city.
The official date of foundation of this city is 1735, but before that a settlement already existed here - here was an Arab fortress. Later, the Russians built a fortification under the leadership of General-in-Chief Levashov, a monument was erected in his honor in the city. And since that time the history of the city is counted. In the XVIII-XIX centuries, it was a significant center of trade.
Today, agriculture is most developed here. The city was famous for its knives. Kizlyar knives are known all over the world, there are significant weapon enterprises in the city.
This city is also young, founded in 1932, although the archives store information about the existence of the earlier settlement of Ulu-Izbar at this place.He is mentioned in the hiking journal of Emperor Peter I, the date is 1722.
Izberbash appeared due to the development of the oil industry here. Oil production takes place on the Caspian Sea shelf, the city itself is located on the coast 65 kilometers from the capital of the republic. It was built by oilmen and recognized as the most comfortable in the country. In addition to oil-producing enterprises, there is a radio factory, a garment factory, two confectioneries, a gum-mill, and a bakery. Nectars and juices are produced, and there is also a Izberbashsky wine-cognac factory. Noteworthy is the Pushkin-Tau mountain, which in its outlines resembles the profile of a famous classic.
One of the most ancient cities of Dagestan. In its place at the end of the XIV century, an aul arose, at about the same time in 1386, the camp of Tamerlane's troops was located here. Almost 3.5 centuries later, in 1832, a Russian fortification was established here with the former name Temir-Khan-Shura (Lake Tamerlane). This name persisted until 1922. During the civil war, this town was the capital of the republic of mountains. The modern name comes from the surname of the revolutionary Buynaksky.At the end of the twentieth century, sad events took place here, namely, an earthquake in 1970 and in 1999 a terrorist act when a residential building was blown up.
Currently, 64 thousand people live here, Buynaksk is multinational. It is included in the list of cities of Dagestan belonging to the central district. The nature around the city is very beautiful, the mountain river Shura-Ozen flows nearby. The climate is mild, so there are sanatoriums for tuberculosis patients.