Diseases of the temporomandibular joint

Today, diseases of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are quite common. They significantly impair the quality of human life. If you do not undergo timely diagnosis and treatment, the illness can be aggravated so much that it will lead to disability. To avoid this, it is necessary to know what ailments of TMJ are, as well as to consider in detail their symptoms.

general description

The temporomandibular joint is located directly in front of the ear. It consists of the lower jaw and the temporal bone. In this area, sometimes there are a variety of diseases. The lower jaw is connected to the skull with the help of muscles. This allows us to chew, open our mouth, etc. In this case, the movements occur synchronously on both sides.

Dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint

In the event of various diseases, disorders of the joint, its muscles and nerves are determined. The symptoms of these ailments can be different. Often there is pain. The mouth can only open partially.In some cases it becomes difficult to talk, eat. A number of diseases cause a displacement of the jaw when opening the mouth.

Diseases of the temporomandibular joint, the symptoms of which are diverse, can manifest themselves with a crunch. Sometimes there are headaches, tooth sensitivity. Various factors can cause such discomfort. Most often these include injuries, infection, and stress. Strong emotional stress leads to the fact that the muscles are in constant tension. This leads to tight clenching of the jaw. This is especially noticeable at night, when a person in a dream begins to grit his teeth (bruxism).

Stress leads to pain in the facial muscles, in the neck. Teeth become sensitive. Their enamel is erased. Also a frequent symptom can be headaches. Abnormal bite can also cause diseases of the jaw joints. This situation occurs when removing teeth. The height of the bite in this case is reduced.

In addition to these factors, excessive physical exertion, weightlifting, and overstrain can lead to the appearance of various ailments. Wrong lifestyle, bad habits and unhealthy diet only aggravate the situation. The diseases of the TMJ are in the competence of the orthopedic surgeon.


One of the most common diseases of this type is arthritis of the temporomandibular joint. This pathology often occurs after injury. Allergies can also trigger arthritis. A common cause of the disease is the presence in the body of a common or local infection in the area of ​​the TMJ. As a result of these pathologies, an inflammatory process may develop. This is arthritis.

Diseases of the temporomandibular joint

The presented disease can be of several types. There are traumatic, non-infectious and infectious arthritis. The disease may be chronic or acute. Symptoms may vary significantly.

Stage of the disease

In the acute stage, arthritis of the temporomandibular joint is manifested by severe pain. When opening the mouth, it increases. Movement in the joint during this period is limited. When opening the mouth, the jaw shifts to the side where the inflammatory process develops. A face may become asymmetrical. This is due to swelling due to inflammation. Skin in the area of ​​the joint may turn red. With pressure the pain increases.

Joint pain

When the acute stage passes, the disease without proper treatment turns into a chronic stage. In this case, the pain becomes less noticeable. It appears periodically, especially when opening the mouth. Joint mobility deteriorates. This is especially noticeable in the morning. When pressing on the area around the joint, pain increases. At the chronic stage, destructive changes may occur, osteoporosis develops. The treatment of arthritis of the temporomandibular joint should be timely. The more advanced the stage, the greater the likelihood of complications.


Osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint is a very common disease. It refers to dystrophic pathologies. Arthrosis is the result of various injuries, inflammations, endocrine disruption, or metabolic processes. Muscles in the course of the appearance of certain abnormalities begin to adapt to them. This leads to the appearance of compression in some areas, and stretching in others.

TMJ arthritis

In this case, the head of the mandible suffers from excessive load. Her take on cartilage. They do not become unable to withstand the load over time. As a result, pinching of the nerve endings occurs. Bone tissue gradually destroyed.If no measures are taken to treat the disease, the degenerative processes will be irreversible. This will lead to disability, inability to open your mouth or speak. Therefore, it is impossible to start the disease.

Osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint is accompanied by pain. This is caused by trauma to the nerve endings when moving. Here the blood circulation is disturbed. The joint is moving incorrectly. When opening the mouth, the lower jaw is shifted to one side.

To cause such a disease can poor-quality prosthetics, loss of teeth. The jaw takes when moving, chewing the wrong position. If you need to perform prosthetics, you need to contact a proven specialist. Otherwise, it will take time to face such a problem as arthrosis.

Symptoms of arthrosis

The treatment of osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint depends largely on the cause that provoked it, the stage of the disease and the characteristics of its course. The symptoms of this disease are similar to other types of ailments in this area. Therefore, the diagnosis should be carried out by an experienced specialist.

Joint pathology

With the development of arthrosis, a crunch appears when moving the jaw. Her movements can become obstructed. This is especially noticeable after an active conversation or chewing. In the early stage of the disease, clicking in the joint appears.

Muscle pain may occur. It spreads to the ear or radiates to the area under the jaw. The sky, tongue, throat, and even shoulder can hurt. With pressure on the joint discomfort does not occur. When opening the mouth, the jaw moves in waves.

If you conduct a full diagnosis, it will be found that the teeth come into contact in different occlusions incorrectly. Also, similar pathologies occur in people who chew on one side. On palpation, muscle soreness may be felt on the loaded side of the jaw.

With arthrosis of the middle and advanced stage, the temporomandibular joint hurts when moving. On the x-ray visible changes in the shape of the head of the joint. Its flattening can be expressed more or less. The joint gap in this case will be narrowed.


Considering the diseases of the temporomandibular joint, a few words should be said about such a disease as ankylosis.When it occurs, the surface of the joints are spliced ​​due to fibrous or bone changes. In the joint, there may be a partial or complete loss of mobility.

Arthrosis of the joint

The cause of the development of ankylosis can be diseases in the area of ​​the joint of a chronic or acute form. Most often osteomyelitis, purulent arthritis, as well as fractures in this area lead to similar consequences. More prone to ankylosis children. At this age, the surface of the joint, covered with the periosteum without cartilage cover, quickly grow together. In adults, fibrous ankylosis is more common.

One of the main symptoms is persistent difficulty or lack of movement in the sore joint. In most cases, it is determined when moving in a horizontal plane. If ankylosis is unilateral, the face will be asymmetrical. If the disease develops on both sides, the chin will be moved backwards.

With the fibrous form of the disease, pain is more likely to occur. In this case, the muscles quickly get tired when chewing, it is hard to open the mouth, especially in the morning.

X-ray in some areas of the joint gap is missing. This is a characteristic symptom of the disease.At the same time the head and neck of the joint thickens.

Muscle dysfunction

Dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint is a pathology that affects the masticatory muscles. Their coordination is disturbed. Elements of the joint with different relative position.

To provoke the development of pathology can be stress, metabolic disorders, as well as the wrong bite or other occlusive disorders. Asymmetry often occurs with muscle movement. The location of the heads of the mandible is also shifted. At the same time injured nerve endings in this area. Over time, muscle dysfunction leads to the development of arthrosis.

Symptoms of disease

Dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint can be of two types. In the first case, the ailment is painless. In the second case, there is a strong discomfort in the masticatory muscles. With this form of the disease, pain appears on the one hand, which lasts constantly. Its intensity may vary. The pain radiates to the ear, cheek, temple, forehead. Also, discomfort can give to the teeth and jaw, palate and tongue, throat. In some cases, one side of the head hurts. Unpleasant sensations intensified when chewing.Also, when the head is tilted, the pain becomes stronger. Hypothermia, emotional or physical stress also leads to the appearance of pain. Unpleasant sensations are when taking analgesics.

The disease may be accompanied by emotional disorders. There is a strong feeling of anxiety, fear, nightmares, or a person suffering from insomnia. Sometimes the symptoms are mild. There may be several or just one. If any abnormalities occur, consult a doctor.

Diagnosis of muscle dysfunction

Treatment of dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint prescribed by the doctor after a comprehensive examination. He is examining the patient. A survey of related symptoms is also conducted. The survey can confirm the presence of stiffness. The face also looks asymmetrical.

When compressing the teeth, creaking may occur. The doctor performs palpation. In this case, pain occurs most often. Muscles become hyperactive. Sometimes there are subluxations of the head of the jaw or its disk. In some cases, the examination revealed a hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles.

In the process of diagnosis, an analysis of the functional state of the occlusion in the oral cavity is carried out. The position of all elements of the joint is also determined using special diagnostic methods. Based on the data obtained, the doctor prescribes a comprehensive treatment. It depends on the degree of neglect of the disease, the characteristics of its occurrence and provoking factors.

Dislocation and subluxation

Another common pathology is dislocation and subluxation of the temporomandibular joint. Such disorders can be caused by trauma or certain diseases, such as muscle dysfunction. In this case, the elements of the joint are displaced relative to each other.

This condition is characterized by pain. The mouth becomes hard to open. The head and the disk change their position relative to one another. When muscle dysfunction subluxation or dislocation is directed backwards.

When functional disorders of the capsule and ligaments are stretched. Subluxations occur periodically. In this case, the mobility of the jaw at some point becomes impossible. The patient resolves this situation on his own. This condition requires timely treatment.If there is a dislocation, the head assumes a fixed wrong position. The mouth becomes impossible to close.


Treatment of the temporomandibular joint prescribed by the doctor after a thorough diagnosis. Symptoms of many diseases are similar. Therefore, self-medication can be hazardous to health. Turning to the hospital and passing the examination, the patient is prescribed a comprehensive treatment.

The process includes a number of general and special effects. The first category of treatment of the temporomandibular joint is the provision of a resting mode for the patient. He should take only soft, liquid food that does not need to chew. You also can not open wide the mouth, a lot of talk. In accordance with the type and characteristics of the disease, the doctor prescribes a set of medicines that have a specific mechanism of influence on the pathology.

If necessary, bite correction is carried out, a strong grip of the teeth is eliminated. Assign physiotherapy procedures. Therapy is aimed at relieving muscle tension. In some cases, only surgery can help the patient.This is required if conservative treatment did not produce results.

Having considered the features and types of diseases of the temporomandibular joint, one can identify the main symptoms that most often accompany this ailment. Knowing them, each person with the appearance of early signs of the disease will be able to consult a doctor.

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