Diagnosis of pregnancy
Whatever they say, pregnancy is one ofthe most tremulous, responsible moments in the life of every woman. Pregnancy may be indicated by many primary signs: a change in appetite, nausea, lack of menstruation, but only a specialist can diagnose pregnancy. Early diagnosis of pregnancy determines the presence of probable and presumptive signs.Presumptive or doubtful symptoms include:
- sharpened sense of smell (aversion to sharp smells: perfume, alcohol, tobacco smoke);
- changes in appetite (aversion to fish, meat or other products), perversion of taste (gravitation to chalk, clay, to sharp products);
- pigmentation of the skin of the nipple-shaped circles, along the white line of the abdomen, on the face;
- increased drowsiness, irritability, sudden changes in mood.
Probable signs include:
- cyanosis of the cervical mucosa and vagina;
- termination of menstruation;
- a change in the consistency of the mucosa, the shape, as well as the size of the uterus;
- lab studies (determination of the concentration of chorionic hormone in the blood and urine).
Diagnosis of pregnancy in the early stages: reliable symptoms
Among such signs:
- definition of parts and movements of the embryo during palpation or ultrasound of a woman's abdomen;
- auscultation of cardiac tones in a child. Cardiac contractions can be determined using instrumental diagnostic methods: cardiotocography, ECG, phonography, auscultation.
Diagnosis of pregnancy is carried out onthe basis of anamnestic data, palpation of the mammary glands and extrusion of colostrum, visual examination of the vagina and external genitals, instrumental examination using vaginal mirrors, as well as two-hand vaginal-abdominal or vaginal examination of a woman.
Modern diagnosis of pregnancy includes a variety of instrumental methods: echographic, radioimmunological, immunological, biological, etc.
Biological methods of diagnosis are based on determining the concentration of hormones (choriogonadotropin) in a woman's blood.
Immunological diagnosis of pregnancy is based on precipitation reactions with rabbit antiserum, or on suppression of the hemagglutination reaction, or on complement fixation.
Delayed pregnancy is an important clinicalsymptom, especially in patients with a regular cycle. Its significance rises if it is combined with the "swelling" of the breast and the appearance of colostrum in it, with a change in the consistency and size of the uterus, with the appearance of cyanosis of the vagina and cervix of the uterus. During pregnancy, the size and shape of the uterus change. In non-pregnant women, the uterus has a pear-shaped form; by the age of five or six weeks, this organ acquires a globular shape, and by the end of pregnancy it is ovoid.
Ultrasound diagnosis of pregnancy allows you to observe the embryonic development of the child and take the necessary measures at the slightest deviation from the physiological norm.This method allows you to determine the gender of the child, andalso reveal defects and anomalies of fetal development. Ultrasound-Doppler can be used to determine dysfunctional abnormalities in the mother-placenta-embryo system in a timely manner. Thanks to this method, you can determine the fetal heart rate and blood flow velocity. This diagnostic method is of high value in complications of pregnancy (for example, embryo development delay syndrome). Diagnosis of pregnancy can be carried out with the help of antenatal cardiotocography. This method allows you to assess the vital functions of the fetus.