Cotopaxi Volcano. Where are the coordinates
Only fifty kilometers to drive from the capital of Ecuador, to get to the Cotopaxi National Park (in another transcription - Cotopaxi), stretching around the volcano of the same name. This peak is the second highest among the mountains and the first among the highest volcanoes of the country. Moreover, he was recognized as the highest active (active) volcano in the world.
Cotopaxi is a real Fuji of Ecuador, not inferior to its Japanese "colleague" in either beauty or harsh charm. It has even become one of the peculiar tourist business cards of the region.
The place where the Cotopachi volcano is located is the north-western part of South America, in the longest mountain range of the world - in the Andes, in relative proximity to the Sangai volcano. Just 50 kilometers away is the capital of Ecuador - Quito. The geographic coordinates of the Cotopaxi Volcano are 0 degrees south latitude and 78 west longitude. The height of the "main fire-breathing mountains of Ecuador" is 5,897 km.
The name of the Cotopaxi volcano can be translated into Russian as "a shining, brilliant mountain." Probably, this name was given to him by the local ethnic groups either because of the snow-white “cap” shining in sunny weather, or because of the regular fiery “illumination” that he shows (due to eruptions).
Geologists classify Cotopaxi as a stratovolcano because of the pronounced characteristic of volcanoes of this type of conical shape.
Despite the fact that the Spaniards already recorded the eruption of this volcano in their annals at the beginning of the 16th century, the first ascent to it took place much later. A scientist and traveler from Germany, who conducted scientific research in the area of the Cotopachi volcano, climbed to its top in 1872. True, there was another serious attempt before him: two desperate brave men - travelers and scientists E. Bonplan and A. Humboldt - defied the volcano, but did not overcome the remaining 300 meters to the top and were forced to go down.
Relief, flora and fauna
Despite the very hot climate of Ecuador, Cotopaxi Volcano, even in summer, retains its “white cap” consisting of snow and ice.The eternal line of snow begins at an altitude of about 4.7 kilometers and continues to the very top, almost 1.2 kilometers.
Like many volcanoes, Cotopaxi has two visible craters - a more ancient outer one, which has a larger radius, and a younger inner one, located inside the ancient one. The geometric shape of both approaches the correct circle.
Here you can meet deer, llamas, wild horses. Of the birds - hummingbirds, Andean chibis and even more than a hundred species.
In the 18th century, the Cotopachi volcano “exploded” three times - in 1742, in 1744 and in 1768. And the eruption of 1768 brought the most catastrophic consequences, the settlement of Latacunga and many villages were destroyed. An eruption was also recorded in the 19th century — in 1877, a powerful eruption again occurred, with such a large eruption of lava, volcanic ash and volcanic bombs so characteristic of this volcano.
Each volcanic catastrophe suffered significant damage. The lava flows of the Cotopaxi volcano on the mainland sometimes even reached the coast of the Pacific Ocean, literally burned the surrounding fertile valleys, along with the settlements of the aborigines. These were the most powerful of the eruptions, but more than fifty of them were recorded from the beginning of the observations by the Europeans.
The volcano is quite active, the last eruption recorded in 1942. Volcanic ash and volcanic bombs are found a hundred miles from the volcano. However, at the moment, Cotopaxi does not inspire people with the illusion of its security. The constant evaporation of volcanic gases, occasionally escaping from the depths of the mountains, transparently "hint" that relatively recent events can recur at any time. For this reason, volcanologists regularly take measurements and monitor a restless volcano.
As already mentioned, in the Cotopaxi volcanic cone area lies the beautiful Ecuadorian National Park, with a combined area of more than 30,000 hectares. But not only Cotopaxi is a part of the park, there is also a smaller volcano - Ruminai, as well as many rivers, streams and lakes.
Here you will find all the necessary lovers of outdoor activities. After all, there are both well-equipped hiking trails with equipped campsites, and quite difficult climbing routes of varying degrees of sheerness. The “Volcano Street” hiking trail is widely known, passing through the most picturesque corners of the national park.
There is a cycling track, you can also book an excursion on horseback.It offers tourists - trained guides, you can rent climbing and camping equipment. At the foot of a large organized campground.
Photographers will be especially pleased at the national park - there are many beautiful mountain panoramas here, and the developed high-altitude zone (from the equatorial jungle to the icy lifeless desert) allows you to observe and photograph the most diverse forms of life.
The park was created to protect this beautiful natural corner, its unique, diverse animal and plant world. Therefore, there are certain limitations that guides and guides will gladly explain.
Tourists can also be advised to visit the numerous handicraft shops, where you can not only buy inexpensive souvenirs, but also take some kind of master class on a particular kind of needlework.