Classification of teaching methods.
Classification of methods of teaching literacy or anyschool discipline does not fit into a clear definite framework. In the domestic and world practice, much effort has already been made to make it up. The method is a multidimensional and universal category, that's why different authors use different grounds for making their classification. They give arguments that support a particular classification model.
E.Ya. Golant and EI. Perovsky proposes to classify methods by the nature of the perception of information and the source of its transmission. That is, there is a passive perception, when the students look and listen - a lecture, story, explanation, demonstration and so on. And active perception is the use of visual aids, books, work with them, as well as a laboratory method.
Classification of teaching methods for varioussources of information transfer, as well as knowledge acquisition was proposed by NM Versilin, IT Ogorodnikov and others. Within the framework of this classification are the following methods: verbal - work with the book, the word of the teacher; and practical - experiment, observation, exercises, that is, studying the reality that surrounds each of us.
Classification of teaching methods, proposed by B.P. Esipov and MA Danilov is based on didactic tasks. That is, the sequence of students' acquisition of knowledge in a particular lesson is of great importance. First comes the acquisition of knowledge, then the formation of skills and skills, then the application of these acquired knowledge, followed by creative activity, further consolidation, testing skills, knowledge and skills.
There is also a classification of teaching methods forcharacter (type) of cognitive activity. She was offered I.Ya. Lerner and MN Skatkin. They said that the level of independent activity is reflected in the nature of cognitive activity of students. This classification is inherent in such methods: reproductive (boundaries of creativity and skill), explanatory and illustrative, it is also called information-reproductive, partially search, problem statement of knowledge and research.
German didact L. Klinberg also proposed his classification of teaching methods in combination with forms of cooperation. The first group is monologic methods - a demonstration, a story, a lecture. The second group - forms of cooperation - group, individual, frontal and collective. The third group - dialogical methods - conversation.
Classification of teaching methods proposed by Yu.K. Babansky, is based on the organization and implementation of educational and cognitive activities, methods of stimulating it, motivation, as well as methods of self-monitoring and control. This classification is represented by the following groups of methods: the first - the methods of organization, as well as the implementation of educational and cognitive activities. These include verbal (lecture, story, conversation, seminar), visual (demonstration, illustration), practical (laboratory experiments, exercises). The same group includes problem-searching and reproductive methods, methods of work under the guidance of the teacher and independently. The second group of this classification - methods of stimulating and motivating the activities of students. And the third group - methods of self-monitoring and control over educational and cognitive activities with the aim of increasing its effectiveness.
Thus, there are several tensclassifications of teaching methods that have both their shortcomings and their own merits. But it is important to understand that the learning process is a dynamic construction. Therefore, the choice of teaching methods depends on many factors.