BTR-70. Wheeled armored personnel carriers. Armored personnel carriers and armored vehicles of Russia
With the development of a common technical base, in particular, achievements in the field of self-propelled vehicles of the late XIX century, the most courageous-minded military theorists began to think about replacing horses and mules with mechanized means of delivering goods and people in combat conditions. The idea of using cars as a strike force armed with machine guns, and especially artillery guns, seemed even more fantastic. The Russian armored personnel carriers BTR-80 have now become the main means of transportation for the Russian Army. These machines appeared as a result of the long hard work of designers who have gained experience in the design of this particular class of technology. Previous models were exploited by the troops, as they were applied, shortcomings were revealed, the proposals of the military were taken into account.Direct "ancestors" they can be considered BTR-60 and BTR-70.
Before the revolution
At the turn of the century, the proposals of the inventors (for example, engineer Dvinitsky, 1897) about combining two functions (fire and transport) in one car were considered to be quite unthinkable. It will take quite a bit of time, and bold ideas will begin to be implemented one after another. Wheeled armored personnel carriers, equipped with machine guns and rapid-fire cannons, will become commonplace. But the path of development will be long and winding. At that time, the main obstacle was the imperfection and low reliability of the automobile base, on the basis of which “motor war cars” or armored vehicles were originally created. A constructive approach was based on the simplest and cheapest method of adapting ready truck chassis for defense needs.
The bodies were usually sheathed with sheets of anti-bullet armor, machine-gun turrets or fixed firing points were installed on the upper surfaces. We didn’t talk about the transportation of the landing force, there was only enough space to accommodate the crew inside and the crew. These were the "Russo-Balty-M", "Putilov-Garford", "Austin" of different series and other samples.A general idea of them gives the appearance of the most famous "armored car", which Lenin made in 1917 after arriving at the Finland Station in October 1917.
Prewar armored cars
The Red Army of the period of the 20s and 30s was dominated by two basic military concepts, simplistically called “cavalry” and “mechanized” by historians. The cavalry that justified itself during the Civil War was considered to be quite an effective means of combat, maneuverable and allowing to deliver unexpected blows at directions unpredictable for the enemy. Supporters of the motorization of the armed forces insisted on re-equipping the Red Army, equipping it with tanks, tankettes and armored cars. At the same time, less attention was paid to lightweight funds.
The main emphasis in the pre-war years was on tanks, mainly speed. Specialists of the Izhora plant prepared a draft of an experienced sanitary-transport armored car BA-22 based on the chassis of a GAZ-AA truck (Ford's design). The project was not approved. It is possible that this decision is correct, and this technique would not justify itself in the coming war. But in the course of work on it was an important breakthrough.In addition to the crew, the BA-22 could carry ten more fighters.
During the Great Patriotic War, the Red Army fighters almost did not use armored vehicles. Sometimes American transporters used to be leased by limited lots were used, but most often the infantry supported tank formations, jumping directly from the T-34 and KV armor. In other cases, the Red Army was thrown by trucks, and most often the troops committed tedious marches on foot. Only after the Victory did it become time to reflect on military experience and come to the idea of the need for armored means of delivery for infantrymen.
The requirements for the “object-141”, entrusted to V. K. Rubtsov, the leading designer of GAZ in 1947, were simple. As in the first prototypes, he was offered to use the base of a truck with four driving wheels GAZ-63 and equip it with protection from fragments and bullets. The task of this team decided, and in 1950 the Soviet Army adopted the first domestic armored personnel carriers. New cars received the index BTR-40. In a sense, it was they who became the forefathers of the family of infantry vehicles, although both externally and in structure with their “descendants” had little in common. They were biaxial, slow moving, the hull had no roof.But after the BTR-40, the BTR-60, the BTR-70 and the BTR-80 appeared, already representing a qualitatively new class of technology.
BTR-60, "ancestor" of the 70th
In the fifties, the foreign policy situation in the world became sharply aggravated. The events in Hungary and the participation of the Soviet Army in them revealed a number of new requirements for the means of delivering infantry formations to the sites of the alleged hostilities. In particular, in the event of a possible unfavorable development of the situation, the time for the construction of sapper crossings might not be. Europe is saturated with rivers, and it is difficult to overcome them without floating armored personnel carriers in conditions of active military confrontation. At the end of 1956, GAZ began developing a new chassis, this time a four-axle and equipped with a jet engine. The new car was named the BTR-60, it was set in motion by two 90-horsepower automobile engines GAZ-40P.
The power compartment was located under the floor of the landing compartment, its bottom space was limited to the bottom. Many solutions were subsequently applied after practical testing in the design of the BTR-70. Model "60P" entered service in 1959, it was equipped with independent torsion bar suspension of all eight wheels,automatic regulation of tire pressure, hydraulic booster, heating system and many other options that the earlier Soviet military equipment could not boast of. It was a technological breakthrough.
70th and its new engines
The development of the BTR-70, which became the further development of the concept of a four-axle amphibious infantry delivery vehicle with high maneuverability, was completed in the first half of the 1970s. The difference between the adoption dates and the start of mass production of the GAZ-4905 product is as much as four years. From 1972 to 1976 there was a revision of the new armored personnel carrier. The similarity of its design with the already proven BTR-60 did not mean nevertheless identity. Many important components were changed, the layout took into account the most modern requirements and even some geometrical dimensions became different. The BTR has become a squatting 18.5 cm, the power supply has been revised, it has become much easier to leave the car. And, of course, she got a new engine. The BTR-70 is driven by two carburetor eight-cylinder 120-strong V-type engines ZMZ-4905.
Layout of the troop compartment
The power of the power plant is primarily interested in the driver, he must know what slope the car can overcome, how fast it moves along a highway or rough terrain. The infantryman is worried about something else: how comfortable it will be to fire through the embrasures and how long it will take him to leave the BTR-70. The technical description states that there are two seats inside the troop compartment, but they are not located along the sides, but in the center. This scheme involves greater ease of shooting through the side embrasures facing the soldiers. Only seven hatches, they are sealed with lids.
The landing hatches are located in the lower part of the armored hull, which increases the safety of getting out of the car.
The BTR-70, as well as the BTR-60, is equipped with a 14.5-mm KPVT machine gun and a PKT paired with it. Ammunition consists of 500 cartridges for KPVT and 2000 7.62-mm ammunition for PKT. The tower rotates, but the possible angle of vertical guidance is increased to 60 °, which is twice as large as that of the 60th model, Tula Instrument Design Bureau took care of this. Shooting is carried out through the sight of the type PP-61AM. To this weapon should be added the firepower of the personnel,located in the troop compartment and behind the commander’s place, including the Strela-2 MANPADS in the amount of two units, one RPG-7 and two ATC-17 grenade launchers. And, of course, on the AK machine from each fighter.
Eyes and ears
An overview of the environment is very important for each combat vehicle. In addition to the usual capabilities provided by inspection hatches, visual inspection can be carried out through TPKU-2B devices (one, commander) and TNPO-115 (there are three of them). There is also a night vision equipment TKN-1C with illuminator OU-3GA-2M. Observation from the tower is carried out through TNPT-1. The landing is provided with two devices of observation TNP-B. With such equipment completely "blind" the car is very difficult.
The BTR-70 communication device is the R-123M handheld transceiver, located near the commander’s place. For the exchange of information inside the machine there is a three-channel intercom R-124.
Modifications and Versions
Like any successful car, the BTR-70 proved to be suitable for multipurpose use. A dozen of different versions are known, from the command-staff BTR-70 KSHM to specialized modifications designed to ensure uninterrupted radio communications. In addition, after the collapse of the USSR, own models were created in different countries that emerged on its territory, resulting from the modernization of Soviet technology.At the Kharkov machine-building KB them. A. A. Morozova carburetor engines replaced diesel UTD-20 (BTR-70M). Three more Ukrainian modifications (KBA-2, BTR-70T and BTR-7) differ from the prototype in weapons, powerplant and fire control devices. There are also Belarusian, Azerbaijani and Kazakh versions. Of the foreign versions, the Romanian machine TAV-77 stands out The instruction manual BTR-70 translated into many languages.
The armored personnel carrier most widespread on the territory of the former USSR participated in the Afghan war of 1979-1989. During the Transnistrian conflict, ten of these machines "changed the owner" (they were beaten off from the Moldovan army). He fought the BTR-70 in both Chechen wars, in Abkhazia and South Ossetia. The Turkish army bought GDR cars after the unification of Germany and used them against the Kurds. The high efficiency and reliability of Russian technology prompted the command of this NATO member country to purchase a large batch of Russian armored personnel carriers directly from the manufacturer (1996).
More than two dozen states at present, and among them such exotic countries as Nepal (135 pcs.), Mexico (26 pcs.), Zambia (20 pcs.) And Pakistan (120 pcs.), Operate the BTR-70.The characteristics, combined with high reliability, in their own turn create for the Russian technology an excellent reputation, contributing to the further expansion of its presence in the international markets of new models, representing the continuation of the BTR line (60, 70 and 80). The Russian Army is planning to switch to the most advanced version of the armored personnel carrier, the BTR-82, this will happen in the coming years.