Berlin: population, its ethnic composition and growth dynamics
It is Germany that largely determines the life of European countries, being a leader in the economic and social spheres. Among the countries of the European Union, she rightfully occupies a leading position. Germany is respected, and the opinion of German politicians is authoritative throughout the world. The country owes such prosperity to its people. And not only to those people who were in power and made fateful decisions, but also to ordinary people. Leadership is explained by the mental differences and character of the Germans. This material is about the historical path that metropolitan residents have overcome - the population of Berlin.
Foundation of the city
The historic center of today's capital of Germany is located in the center of the river Spree. You can't say when exactly Berlin appeared. The population, which first settled on these lands, formed the site even sixty thousand years ago.At that time this territory was completely covered by glaciers. According to historians and archaeologists, the climate of the then Germany was no different from the natural conditions in modern Greenland. Due to the onset of the ice age, only reindeer could live in this area.
After the global cooling subsided, the outlines of the Spree River began to emerge in the valley. People began to lead a sedentary lifestyle. They built solid housing, and their main activity consisted in the cultivation of land and raising cattle. In the sixth century BC, the Germans took control of this territory. It is believed that it was from them and the modern Germans.
In 720 there were changes in the ethnic composition of the city, known today as Berlin. The population were the tribes of the Slavs. However, they were not long masters of these lands. The arriving German princes drove the Slavs to the south-east - today's territories of Poland and Ukraine. Having won a victory over the Slavic tribes, King Henry I and the Emperor Otto the Great formed on the lands where today Berlin is located, two bishops, which were called Havelburg and Brandenburg.
The last settlement during the fighting went under the authority of Margrave Albrecht. It was thanks to Albrecht and his successors that the population of Berlin increased significantly. It was replenished by attracted artisans, merchants and peasants.
The official foundation of Berlin
It is believed that on October 28, 1237 Berlin was founded. Its population lived in two localities. One - directly Berlin itself - was located at the crossing of the river Spree. The second component in the form of Cologne, which lies on the second bank, appeared a little later. Only when the two parts of the modern city were united, a settlement was formed.
Officially, the "birthday" of Berlin is the date of the first written mention of the locality. But in a documented record is the city of Cologne. The name of the modern German capital first appeared in the sources after seven years.
The population of Berlin at that time increased markedly due to the fact that customs fees were abolished in the united city. From this point on, Cologne and Berlin have general management.At that time, territorial units were established, which, over time, would become areas of the modern capital of Germany. These are Köpenick, Spandau, Dahlem, Lankwitz, Lichterfelde, Zehlendorf, Tempelhof, Marien-Dorf.
Origin of city name
Where did the name "Berlin" come from? The population of these lands was distinguished by its diversity and composition. At different stages of the history of the territory were under the control of completely different nationalities. Therefore, it is impossible to determine exactly who owns the idea of this name, but you can put forward a couple of versions. According to one of them, the word "Berlin" has Slavic roots. It is believed that many words with the stress on the suffix -in have just such an origin. In translation, the name means marshland.
True, modern Germans believe that it was their ancestors who became the forefathers of the name. The population explains this by the fact that the symbol of the city is a forest beast - a bear, and in translation this word sounds just like the root of "Berlin" - "ber." But the Slavs also declare that in a certain dialect the word “bear” is translated identically.
Period of Electors in the history of Berlin
The beginning of the 15th century was marked by the advent of the Hohenzollern dynasty. It all started with Elector Frederick I, who became the founder of the Brandgraf Brandenburg, and ended only at the beginning of the 20th century. For five centuries, representatives of this family were in power in the quality of both margraves, and Prussian kings, and German Kaisers.
Not all of Berlin’s population supported the new rulers. Often, residents staged riots. But most often the result was only the emergence of new and new restrictions, toughening of the regime and deprivation of economic and political privileges. For example, in the middle of the XV century, Berliners raised a popular uprising against the construction of the castle of Frederick II the Iron. But the power was stronger. The confrontation resulted in the fact that three years after the rebellion the city ceased to carry the title of merchant. Berlin was given the status of the residence of the Brandenburg Margraves.
The seventeenth century in the history of today's capital of Germany can be described as a period of extremes. The population of the city of Berlin at that time either decreased markedly or, on the contrary, increased.The city suffered special losses during the Thirty Years War, which mowed down almost half of the population. About a third of the settlement was destroyed to the ground.
But a change in leadership led to a stabilization of the demographic situation. This was facilitated by the policy of Friedrich Wilhelm, which was aimed at increasing migration flows. He believed that religious tolerance is one of the basic conditions that promote the attraction of people. Thanks to such actions, visitors settled several settlements, which later became the suburbs of Berlin. Today they are such administrative units as Friedrichswerder, Dorotheenstadt, Friedrichstadt.
An additional influx of people was provided by the charitable act of Friedrich Wilhelm, who kindly agreed to shelter half a thousand Jewish families who had previously lived in Austria. With his edict on religious tolerance, he invited about fifteen thousand French Huguenots. One third of them became residents of Berlin. This led to the fact that by the beginning of the eighteenth century, a third of the population were foreigners. In addition to the French, the inhabitants of Berlin were Bohemians, Poles and Salzburger.
The onset of the eighteenth century shook the population of the city. Berlin became the Prussian capital when kings replaced the margrave. From this point on, the administrative units that were suburbs of the settlement officially became part of Berlin. However, even before this, the totality of such settlements as Cologne, Friedrichswerder, Dorotheenstadt and Friedrichstadt were considered, although unofficially, but parts of the capital.
The mid-century distinguished itself by the next arrival of the Slavs on the territory of the future Germany. This time, the Russian corps under the leadership of Count Chernyshev set foot on German lands. As a result of the Seven Years War, the city authorities gave the winners the keys to the capital. But the period of Russian rule was quite short. After staying in Berlin for four days, the count decided to withdraw the corps. He came to this conclusion after news of the approach of the enemy troops.
The era of kings was marked by another major defeat of the Prussian army, which led to a revolution in the political system of the state. Due to the fact that Napoleon took over German troops in October 1806, a number of reforms were carried out.The result of this process was a breakthrough in economics and education. The city passed from hand to hand. Berlin then came under the rule of the French, then again controlled by the troops of Count Chernyshev. In the middle of the nineteenth century, the territory of Berlin was expanded to include suburbs such as Wedding, Moabit, Tempelhof and Schöneberg.
Nineteenth century in the history of the city
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, a railway was built in Prussia, the terminus of which was Berlin and Potsdam. This event, like similar ones in many other regions, has led to an increase in the number of inhabitants. How many people were in Berlin at that time? The city had half a million people. The increase in the number of citizens promoted industrial growth, but in the middle of the century people stirred up revolts.
Then the inhabitants were embraced by the idea of overthrowing royal power. The government quickly put down a riot, but riots still occurred at regular intervals. After 23 years Prussia won the war with France, and again Berlin received the status of the capital, only this time by the German Empire.Only Reichskanzler Otto von Bismarck was able to unite the country. At that time, the population growth in Berlin was very noticeable: three hundred thousand people.
After the proclamation of the German Empire and until the beginning of the twentieth century, the number of citizens reached two million people. And if we take into account all the administrative units that were suburbs, then another seven hundred thousand people can be safely added to this number. For more convenient and organized management of such a huge capital, it was decided to divide the city into twenty districts. In the first twenty years of the new century, the number of Berliners increased to three and a half million.
The beginning of World War I led to a complete collapse. Riots began in the capital, which the then ruler William II, who soon abdicated, could not stand. The economic and social situation of Berlin left much to be desired. This was evident from the deterioration in the quality of life of respectable middle-class families, because they were the ones who set the general level.
With the beginning of the era of the Weimar Republic, the whole country was mired in financial problems.Soon there was a slight rise, but it was not possible to achieve a powerful breakthrough - the world crisis of 1929 slowed down the development.
The era of fascism in Germany
Problems in the economic sector led to a deterioration in the lives of the entire population. Mass unemployment forced to take to the streets with protests from local residents. The struggle began between representatives of the Communists and the Nazis. The end of this was laid by Adolph Hitler, who had come to power. It was he who initiated the era of fascism.
For the inhabitants of the city, his arrival was marked by a demographic collapse, because, in his opinion, the nation should be “clean.” This meant the end of Berlin as a multinational center. On the "crystal night", an order was issued to crush all the institutions owned by the Jews. At the beginning of the war, all the representatives of this people who lived in the capital were sent to concentration camps. Berlin became the place where the questions of world politics were from now on.
During World War II, most of the capital was destroyed by bombing of British and American aircraft. At the time of the surrender, the population of Berlin (1945), according to various sources, was from one and a half to three and a half million inhabitants.
The events of the Yalta conference confirmed the division of the German capital among the allies. The settlement was divided into four parts. And in the middle of the same year, the Allied commandant's office exercised control over the city.
The split of the city after the war
Once the former allies after the end of the war could not divide the zone of influence. This led to the formation of an economic blockade, which was fought by an air bridge. The formation of two republics - the German Democratic and Federative - led to the emergence of two capitals. From now until 1989, when the Berlin Wall collapsed, the city was split into two parts.
The entire eastern part of the settlement remained under the authority of the Soviet Union. There and then there was a popular uprising against the new government. But there was no change, all disturbances were suppressed.
The western part of the capital was under the control of the Americans, the British and the French. It was believed that the population of West Berlin should be extremely happy that, unlike their counterparts in the eastern part of the city, they can be content with a good level of social protection,democracy and high quality of life. Berlin, which was under the authority of the USSR, could not even dream of such a thing. The capital of Germany was called the "showcase of the West." But after a while Bonn became the administrative center of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Continuing feuds between the former allies led to the construction of a barrier between parts of the city - this is how the Berlin Wall appeared. Crossing the border was tightly controlled and monitored via checkpoints. It was noteworthy that, despite the complete alienation of the two components of the city, many urban projects were focused on the entire territory of Berlin.
The situation became less tense after the quadripartite agreement in 1971. Then economic ties were established between the two republics. This led to the lifting of the transport blockade and the restoration of diplomatic relations between various authorities. The Berlin Wall collapsed in 1989. The Soviet Union succumbed to the influence of the inhabitants of the GDR and decided to cease interference in the life of the republic. A year later, the split was overcome through the reunification of the Federal Republic of Germany and the GDR.The Bundestag settled in Berlin, and this testified to the granting of the status of the capital of the united state to the latter.
The population of Berlin for 2016 was 3,326,002 inhabitants. Taking into account the suburbs, the number of agglomerations reaches 4,416,123 people. By gender, we can note the predominance of representatives of the beautiful half of humanity. According to the age criterion, the population falls into the middle category, since the generalized indicator is 41.3 years.
Surprising is the fact that, despite the high population density of Berlin, most of its inhabitants are single. Only fifty percent of Berliners prefer to live in families. Of these, many do not cohabit with their spouses. But people in the capital do not care much, because, in their opinion, the family is not the highest value. The Germans are distinguished by their industriousness, so a career comes to the fore for them. To save more, pragmatic citizens rent housing and pay for utilities, alongside unfamiliar people. In society, this is not considered something wrong and is not condemned.
Berlin's ethnic composition
Despite numerous negative historical events concerning foreigners, the population of Berlin for 2016 is very multi-ethnic. This can be confirmed by the fact that one sixth of the inhabitants of the capital are immigrants from other countries. The ethnic composition is represented by more than 180 nations.
The most numerous diaspora is Turkish. According to the number of immigrants from Turkey, Berlin ranks second after their immediate homeland. Metropolitan residents are about 120 thousand representatives of this nation. As a rule, the place of residence of Turkish citizens is Kreuzberg, a third of whose citizens are Turkish migrant workers and their families.
The Russian diaspora is fairly well represented. Mostly former Russian citizens settle in areas such as Marzahn and Hellersdorf. These are blocks built up by social high-rise buildings. There Russians make up more than a third of the total population. The population of Berlin for 2016 includes a separate specific category of Russians - they are the heirs of the first wave of emigration. The area they inhabit is located in the western part of the capital.These are areas such as Charlottenburg and Wilmersdorf.
Modern city life
The population of Berlin for 2016 regarding religion is fairly neutral. Many residents of the capital admit that they do not profess any faith. There are more than half such people in the city. Among the representatives of religious communities, the most numerous are Evangelical Christians, who make up a quarter of Berliners. Only ten percent consider themselves Catholics, and only a small proportion (mostly immigrants) are Islamists. On the territory of the capital there are four Orthodox parishes.
A significant part of the townspeople (see the population of Berlin in 2016) is the older age group. Pensioners in the capital live quite comfortably. The state has created all the necessary conditions for them in the form of home care or in a special institution. Older citizens provided the full range of services. Old Berliners love to relax, being regulars of local cafes.
The population of Berlin in 2017 is still distinguished by its multiplicity and diversity, and not only national, but also social.The entire capital's beau monde, which ranks itself as a creative elite, lives in the respective elite districts of Mitte and Prenzlauer Berg. Here artists, designers and sculptors found their refuge. The industrial center of Berlin is considered to be Spandau. Representative offices of major industrial giants such as Siemens, Osram and BMW are located here.