Art museums of Russia: list, description and interesting facts
Russia is a huge and diverse country. In the culture of the country intertwined traditions, rituals and habits of many peoples living on its territory. A huge influence on the development of aesthetic values had objects of art and life of other states. Today, these historically important exhibits are part of the collections of numerous art museums in Russia.
The art museum is one of the areas of art history. Collections of such institutions are primarily of cultural value. These are objects of visual and applied art. The art museum aims to meet the aesthetic and educational needs of man.
An interesting feature of this type of museum is that it is often created to store and display contemporary art objects,representing only cultural value. Later they begin to acquire historical value.
Art museums can be of different forms and directions. They can occupy small areas or cover vast territories, be located in buildings or in the open air, and store both originals and copies of art objects.
Formation of art museums in Russia
The first collections of objects of cultural value began to appear in Russia in monasteries (collections of icons) and in the homes of boyars in the 17th century. Know collected collections of paintings, jewelry, weapons. Naturally, such collections were private and were not intended to be shown to the public.
Also in the 17th century, the most famous art museums of Russia began to form: the Armory, the Hermitage, the Tretyakov Gallery. The greatest contribution to the development of the museum in Russia was made by the reformer Peter the Great. It was he who ordered “clearly behind the glasses” to place the regalia of the royal family. For a long time, the art museums of Russia had a "palace character." The collections were located in the estates of noble families as part of the palace interior.For the general public, these collections of values became available in the second half of the 19th century. Since that time, the list of art museums in Russia began to expand. In addition to metropolitan museums, public collections of values began to open in provincial cities. The main part of them are art museums, organized at educational institutions. In total at the beginning of the 20th century, at the sunset of the Russian Empire, there were about 20 art collections available for viewing.
In the era of the Soviet Union, the development of museum business was given quite a lot of time and effort. The reason for this was the nationalization of private collections of noble families. And by the end of the 20th century there were more than 350 art museums in Russia.
A short list of art museums in Russia
Russia is a huge country rich in its history, culture and values. Naturally, the leading art museums of Russia are concentrated in Moscow and St. Petersburg. However, we should not forget about other cities where exhibits are kept, which are very popular among visitors:
- Unique monuments of Russian architecture in Suzdal and Arkhangelsk.Looking at the impressive wooden structures, it is difficult to imagine that not a single nail was used in their construction.
- The Regional Museum of Fine Arts in Rostov-on-Don has the work of not only Russian masters. Among the six thousand exhibits contain the works of artists and sculptors of European states, as well as Japan and China. This art museum of Russia is an example of how important it is to introduce the younger generation to art. There has been a Children's Art Gallery for over 25 years.
- Vorontsov Palace in Crimea is a unique and unforgettable place. On a visit to this palace and park ensemble should be allocated at least two days. It seems that every centimeter of a magnificent landscape park, every step of the diabase ladder, every element of the English interior, preserved in its original form, is fascinating and is an excellent creation of the hands of great masters.
- The Regional Amber Museum in Kaliningrad presents a collection of 15 thousand jewelery. Here are collected amber objects from the Neolithic to modern times. A museum is located in the old fortress tower of the 19th century.
- The museums of Ivanovo Calico and Vologda lace clearly demonstrate to the public textile works of art that became symbols of these cities.
This is only a small fraction of the art museums of Russia, which play a crucial role in the preservation and development of the cultural image of the country.
The State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg is one of the oldest and most famous art museums in Russia and the world. He has the largest collection, concentrated in one building. This is more than 3 million copies. To go through all the halls of the Hermitage, the visitor will need about 12 and a half hours. And all this time you should go without stopping. And to see and explore each exhibit, you will need to go 24 km. And this “walk” will take 11 years! The Hermitage is one of the three most famous and valuable museums in the world.
Of particular interest are the unusual museum staff. The fact is that about 70 cats live in the Hermitage. For the first time they were let into the palace at the behest of Empress Elizabeth in order to get rid of rats spoiling the walls of the building.
The most eminent art museum of Russia got its name from the French wordermitagewhich means "cell". This is due to the fact that the original exhibits were stored in separate solitary places.
State Tretyakov Gallery
In the middle of the 19th century, a visit to the Hermitage inspired the 20-year-old Pavel Tretyakov to create his own collection of paintings. So began the history of the Tretyakov Gallery. The collection, which was originally private, was donated to Moscow and its inhabitants at the end of the 19th century.
Today, the most extensive art gallery in Russia occupies 8 buildings, with more than 100 thousand paintings in its collection.
Among the exhibits are two versions of Malevich’s Black Square, the painting The Bogatyrs by Vasnetsov, which the author painted for 27 years. To get a portrait of AP Chekhov, Tretyakov, sent the artist Braz to Nice, where the writer was then located. Anton Pavlovich, by the way, did not like this portrait. In his opinion, the expression on his face in the portrait is “as if I had sniffed the hell.”
State Russian Museum
The idea of creating a museum of Russian national art belonged to Alexander the Third in order to maintain patriotic feelings among the people. The museum complex includes 5 buildings on the streets of St. Petersburg.Each of them is an architectural monument.
The main building is the Mikhailovsky or Engineer Castle. In its place was once the temple of the Archangel Michael, the castle belonged to Paul the First, and at the end of the 19th century the building of the engineering school was located there. The name of the castle is unique for many reasons. Firstly, in the history of Russian architecture, a rare case is that the name of the secular structure is given not by the name of the owner and not by territorial affiliation, but in honor of the saint. Secondly, among the many palaces, this building was called the castle. This is due to the fact that Emperor Paul I belonged to the Order of Malta. Today, this art museum of Russia contains more than 411 thousand exhibits devoted to Russian culture.
State Museum of Fine Arts named after A.S. Pushkin
Initially, this museum was created for students interested in sculpture. Of particular interest is the style in which the building is made. Seeing the ancient columns, we can assume that this is classicism. However, this view changes at the entrance to the building, which reveals a glass ceiling.The fact is that the museum did not plan artificial lighting, it had to work only in the daytime, as the exposition at first consisted of only sculptures that were better viewed in daylight.
Since 1949, the collection of the museum has not been shown, since an exhibition of gifts by I.V. Stalin from the peoples of the USSR and foreign countries. This exposition was closed only after the death of the leader.
One of the most valuable exhibits of the museum is the treasure of Priam, found during the excavations of ancient Troy. This treasure has long been considered lost. In fact, during the Great Patriotic War, it was taken to the Soviet Union from Germany and until 1993 it was kept in the vaults of the Pushkin Museum.
The former treasury today is the largest treasury of Russia. Most of the exhibits are the works of the Kremlin masters. It is here that the famous Monomakh hat, the throne of Ivan the Terrible and other unique items that have played an important role in the history of the state are kept. In 9 halls of the museum silver and gold products, state regalia, armaments, precious fabrics and secular costumes from different eras were demonstrated.