Architecture of St. Petersburg: description, attractions and interesting facts.
St. Petersburg is the main tourist center of Russia. Millions of tourists come here every year from different continents to see the amazing open-air museum. It was here that the history of the country was created. It is worth remembering the great gains of Peter the Great, the magnificent victories of the Russian Empire, as well as the first steps of the early Soviet Union.
Basic information about the city
The official date of foundation of St. Petersburg is considered to be 16 (May 27), 1703. Many famous architects, engineers, civilian people from Russia, as well as from Europe worked on the construction of the beautiful city on the Neva. By 1712, most of the construction was completed, the entire royal family moved to St. Petersburg and made it the capital of the empire.
Unfortunately, in the twentieth century, most of the negatives in the direction of power were in this particular city, where entire cells and groupings were formed.In the thirties, the population in Leningrad (that’s how the city was called for a long time) was greatly reduced, as mass repressions took place in the country and, practically, every family, unfortunately, was affected. During World War II, the settlement was blockaded. For this incredible courage, St. Petersburg was given the title of Hero City at this time.
The architecture of St. Petersburg, especially its historical part, is a metropolitan complex created in the 18th-20th centuries. Of course, there are many features. The main difference between urban planning and architecture of St. Petersburg is a thoughtful regularity of the construction of structures, as well as the harmony of ensembles.
Many people know that the city is full of various harmoniously combined architectural styles. We will tell you about the most popular ones.
First, many buildings were built in the style of Peter the Great Baroque. This style was brought by foreign architects, and the greatest contribution was made by Domenico Trezzini. It was he who built the Peter and Paul Cathedral, as well as the building of the twelve colleges.
Secondly, there are a lot of elements of “high” baroque in the city. He is inherent in scope, dynamism, and also pretentiousness. The main architect who worked at the time was Bartholomew Rastrelli. According to his design, the Winter Palace, the Smolny Cathedral, as well as many other buildings were built. For the most part, these monuments form the architecture of St. Petersburg of the 18th century.
Later, the baroque came to replace strict classicism. This style is inherent harmony, as well as severity and simplicity. During this period, the Manege and the Yusupov Palace were built.
Then came the Empire style, glorifying the greatness of the state after winning the war with Napoleon. Among the architects of the period can be mentioned Karl Rossi. According to his projects, the Alexandrinsky Theater was built.
In subsequent years, architects began to mix different styles and sought to romanticism. The styles of architecture in St. Petersburg are very diverse.
Many wonder, where is the St. Petersburg Committee on Architecture and Urban Planning? The main office is located at the address: Zodchego Rossi 1-3. The nearest station is Gostiny Dvor.
The city's attractions
As mentioned above, St. Petersburg is an open-air museum, because there are so many attractions that even for a month you can’t see them all carefully. The city has many wonderful temples, cathedrals, palaces with the richest collections.
The imperial past, without any doubt, is reflected in the facades of the irresistible Winter Palace and magnificent aristocratic mansions on Nevsky Prospect. In this city, graceful embankments, as well as incomparable bridges that constantly attract the attention of tourists from all over the world.
State Hermitage (Winter Palace)
Part of the history of the Russian Empire is inextricably linked with this place. The Hermitage was established in 1764 as a private collection of Catherine the Great. Only almost a hundred years later, the doors of the museum opened for visitors, and the gallery turned into a mass attraction. In those years, the main exhibition occupied one building, now there are five of them.
Not only Catherine II paid attention to the Hermitage; in the following years, all the rulers always sought to carefully monitor the palace. For example, under Nicholas I, many paintings on a battle theme appeared in the museum.
Unfortunately, in the twentieth century, the collection of the museum suffered greatly because of Soviet power, as well as numerous wars. Many famous exhibits were stolen from the museum, and there was almost no replenishment. Museum staff struggled to preserve the collection of the palace, and thanks to them, many canvases still hang on the walls.
Nowadays, the Winter Palace is not only one of the most famous and largest museums, but also a very successful research and development center. Millions of people visit it every year, and branches appear in other cities.
The most important square in St. Petersburg. It originated in the eighteenth century. This area forms the architectural complex, which includes the Winter Palace, the General Staff building, the Alexander Column, the building of the headquarters of the Guard Corps, as well as the Triumphal Arch.
The name Palace Square has been known since 1766, although this territory also existed before, but it was called quite differently. The original name is Admiralty Meadow.
The first decoration of the square is connected with the arrival of Peter the Third.The whole area before this event was paved with rubble, as well as some building materials. The townspeople were allowed to take everything from the square for free. Thus, all cleared by morning.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the government bought up all nearby buildings, and the Arch of the General Staff was built on this site.
Main Admiralty Building
The Admiralty plays a very important role not only in architecture, but also in Russian history as a whole. This shipyard was founded on November 5, 1704.
Initially, it was built according to the drawings of Peter the Great, and it had a slightly different character. The Admiralty was supposed to be a fortification, surrounded by an earth mound with bastions, as well as a moat dug in front of it. Peter planned the building in the form of the letter "P". It was built single-storey and with a high spire.
Here was created the famous Russian fleet, which won a fairly large number of various victories at sea, in particular at Gangut and Grengam.
Saint Isaac's Cathedral
The largest Orthodox church in the city. It contains the unique architecture of the cathedral in St. Petersburg.The temple was built by the project of Auguste Montferrand. He is also one of the best cathedrals in Europe.
The temple was decorated with granite, many types of marble, as well as malachite and lapis lazuli. The decoration of the cathedral includes the largest collection of Russian painting of the mid-nineteenth century. There are more than a hundred works. There are also more than three hundred statues and sculptural groups.
In the twentieth century, the Anti-Religious Museum was opened in St. Isaac's Cathedral, and then the building received the title of a museum-monument. Nowadays, visitors have a unique opportunity to climb the drum colonnade and from a height of over forty meters to admire the magnificent panorama of St. Petersburg.
Another largest Orthodox church in St. Petersburg. The icon of the Mother of God is kept here. The cathedral was designed by the famous Russian architect Andrei Voronikhin. Style built - Empire.
The laying of the first stone took place here in the presence of Emperor Alexander the First. The interior of this magnificent structure is decorated with monumental colonnades.Of course, as you can see, the building is more like a museum than a church.
Icons for the Kazan Cathedral were written by famous Russian artists. Among them are O. Kiprensky and A. Ivanov.
Church of the Savior on Blood
The famous temple, built on the site of the murder of Alexander II. The initiator of the construction of the cathedral was Alexander the Third. The height of this building is about eighty-one meters, and this is exactly the same as the year of the killing of the emperor - 1881.
The cathedral was completed in 1907, worship was not held here, but services were held in memory of Emperor Alexander II. Few people know, but during the Soviet era the Church of the Savior on Blood was used as a morgue, as well as a warehouse. After repairs made in 1997, the building became a museum.
Alexander Nevsky Lavra
Famous landmark of the city, located on Nevsky Prospect. One of the largest monasteries of the city. Since the end of the XVIII century has the status of laurels.
In addition, the Alexander Nevsky Monastery includes several necropolises in which the great personalities of the 18th and 19th centuries are buried.
There are also many interesting facts about the famous city. For example, in St. Petersburg is located the deepest subway in the world.In addition, initially the city was not numbered at home. The warmest point in the village is Nevsky Prospect. A small sculpture, located in the central part of the city, tried to steal more than seven times.
Half an hour's walk from the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, on Respublikanskaya Street, in an absolutely unremarkable building, the Dental Architecture is located in St. Petersburg. The structure has no relation to urban planning. It houses the company that sells dental equipment. But such is the charm of the Northern capital: even the trading companies bear the names from the sphere of architecture here.