Afghan President Karzai Hamid: biography, activities and interesting facts
For many decades, Afghanistan has been one of the most explosive sources of instability, not only in the region, but also in the world. Over the past 40 years, this country has repeatedly changed its name and political course, and also became a springboard for all sorts of terrorist organizations. Its leaders in different years were people with diametrically opposed views, who did not manage to ensure peace and economic prosperity of Afghanistan.
From 2004 to 2014, Hamid Karzai was the president of the IRA, whose biography is dedicated to this article.
Karzai Hamid was born in 1957 in the village of Karz, located in the province of Kandahar. His parents were Pashtuns belonging to the Karzai clan of the tribe. In addition to Hamid, there were seven other children in the family: six sons and a daughter.His father, Abdul Ahad Karzai, was the leader of his tribe. In the years 1964-1973 he served as deputy and deputy chairman of the Senate of Afghanistan. In addition, Karzai Sr was a personal friend of King Zahir Shah, and it was his ancestors who in 1761 donated land to Ahmad Shah Durrani for the foundation of the city of Kandahar.
Karzai Hamid spent most of his childhood in his native village of Karz. He later graduated from the Habibia High School in Kabul and Simla University (India).
When the king was overthrown in 1973, and Daud came to power, Karzai's father emigrated with his older brothers to Pakistan.
After 5 years, Hamid followed their example. The reason for this decision was the coming to power in 1978 of the PDPA party and the entry into Afghanistan of the so-called limited contingent of Soviet troops.
In Pakistan, Karzai Hamid entered the entourage of Sebgatullah Mojaddedi, who at that time was the leader of the National Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan. Fluent in 6 languages, he acted as a translator and mediator in negotiations with US officials on the supply of weapons to the armed opposition. In addition, Hamid Karzai was in charge of communication with the press of the National Front, and from 1987 he headed the Political Department of the NFSA.
At the same time, the politician never participated in hostilities on the territory of Afghanistan, which played a significant role in his future career.
After the fall of Mohammad Najibullah’s regime in 1992 and the victories of the Mujahideen, Karzai Hamid entered the Rabbani government and was appointed deputy foreign minister. He quickly became the right hand and confidant of the head of this department, Hedayyat Amin Arsallah, and was responsible for representing the Republic of Afghanistan at international conferences.
Relations with the Taliban
In 1994, Karzai withdrew from the government of Burhanuddin Rabbani and returned to his homeland, in Kandahar. There, the politician met Mullah Omar, who was one of the founders of the Taliban movement.
According to Karzai himself, the Taliban were "good and honest people", with many of whom he collaborated during the period of "jihad against the Soviets". At the request of the representatives of this movement, the politician gave them their weapons depots in Kandahar and large sums of money.
After coming to power in 1996, the Taliban offered Karzai to become the permanent representative of the Republic of Afghanistan to the UN.However, he refused and went to the Pakistani city of Quetta, where his parents lived.
In July 1999, Karzai Sr. was shot at the threshold of his residence. Hamid blamed the Taliban for his murder and became their sworn enemy.
After the death of his father, Hamid Karzai, whose biography in his youth you already know, was elected head of his tribal clan. However, his relationship with Pakistani authorities deteriorated, and in response to criticism from President Musharraf, he was accused of collaborating with the Taliban. In 2001, during a trip to Europe, Karzai was deprived of a visa, but the ban was later lifted at the request of the United States.
Change of power in Afghanistan
After the well-known terrorist act of September 11, 2001, the international terrorist No. 1, Osama bin Laden, took refuge in the Taliban Afghanistan. According to a version voiced by US officials, the International Security Assistance Force was introduced into the country to destroy it and prevent further similar actions, which could lead to great loss of life.
In parallel with the active hostilities in the middle of autumn 2001, the process of forming a new government began. Hamid Karzai was in the spotlight both as a Pashtun politician and as a prominent member of the tribal nobility.
In December, during the Bonn Conference of Afghan political figures, he was appointed head of the transitional administration. And after 7 months in the world press, a message appeared that Hamid Karzai was declared president of Afghanistan before democratic elections. The main force on which the politician relied at the beginning of his rule were representatives of the Northern Alliance.
Victory in the presidential election
In December 2003, the highest elected body of Afghanistan, the Loya Jirga, adopted a new Constitution. According to this document, a presidential form of government was introduced. Hamid Karzai was one of the first to put forward his candidacy and began to actively conduct his election campaign. During trips around the country he was assassinated. However, after the vote, it became clear that from now on, the legally elected President of Afghanistan - Hamid Karzai.
At his inauguration was present overthrown king of Afghanistan Zahir Shah and representatives of many foreign countries.
According to the UN, more than 10.5 million Afghans were registered for voting, that is, almost 100% of citizens eligible to vote.In addition, for the first time, refugees in Pakistan and Iran (about 1340 thousand people) were also able to express their will.
First term of government
When Hamid Karzai was appointed head of Afghanistan, the United States and its allies hoped that he would restore order in the country. However, this did not happen, and very soon there was a sharp rise in drug trafficking. Moreover, it was established that one of the leaders of this criminal business is Abdul Qayum Karzai, the brother of the president, whom the latter appointed to one of the responsible posts in his government.
Another failure of the head of the Afghan state was the inability to break the armed resistance of the Taliban fighters, and the lack of progress in the economic sphere forced the world community to demand from the country's government a report on spending its multibillion-dollar assistance, which never reached ordinary citizens.
On August 20, 2009, a presidential election was held in Afghanistan, the security of which was assumed by multinational coalition forces. The main contenders, besides Hamid Karzai, were former foreign and finance ministers.The elections were held with numerous violations recorded by international organizations, including the UN mission. In particular, observers estimated that about 800,000 of the 3 million votes cast for the incumbent were rigged. Despite all the failures of his first term in office, Karzai again became president of Afghanistan.
After the first round of elections, it became clear that he did not enjoy the support of an absolute majority of voters. In addition, all attempts by the West to convince Karzai and his main opponent, the former foreign minister named Abdullah Abdullah, to create a coalition failed.
The second presidential term also did not bring anything good to Afghanistan. One of the few positive moments can be called the fact that long before its termination Karzai announced that he was not going to remain in politics any more, thereby not giving a reason for the development of another round of escalation in the region. At the same time, he became the first Afghan leader in the last 100 years who was not killed and not ousted from his post. This alone makes one consider him an outstanding politician.
The achievements of Karzai also include a significant reduction in infant mortality and a jump in the development of the telecommunications sector.
Afghan President Hamid Karzai: Secrets
This policy can be heard extremely controversial opinions. In particular, some journalists, who have often met with Karzai in various situations, claim that he led a practically ascetic lifestyle. And despite the fact that he had the opportunity to uncontrolledly spend billions entering the country as assistance from international organizations, thanks to which millions of Afghans got the opportunity to contact the outside world.
At the same time, it was no secret to anyone that, during the reign of Karzai, his numerous relatives were able to multiply their fortunes hundreds of times. Suffice it to say that the president’s brother, Ahmed Wali, together with his partner, supplied 95 percent of consumables for Kandahar airport, which at that time was one of the busiest in the world. According to American intelligence, they made a profit of $ 250 million. And despite the fact that Ahmed Karzai has never officially admitted that he owns anything.
Personal life politics
Hamid Karzai married Muslims very late in 1998.His choice was a gynecologist Zinat Quraishi, who at that time helped the Afghan refugees in Pakistan. In January 2007, the couple had a firstborn, a son, Mirveyce, and in 2012, their eldest daughter Malalay was born. In 2014, Karzai became the father for the third time when his wife presented him with another girl, Haushi. The last child of the ex-president was born in September 2016 in New Delhi. At the time of the birth of the baby, and this was again a girl, her father was already 58 years old.
Former Afghan President Hamid Karzai is a knight of the Order of the Great Cross of St. Michael and St. George of the British Empire. This award gives him the right to knighthood. In addition, in 2004, the policy was awarded the Quadriga Prize.
Among other things, Hamid Karzai is an honorary professor at Turkmen State University.
He repeatedly participated in various official ceremonies abroad and showed himself to be a well-bred person familiar with the western rules of etiquette.
Afghan President Karzai Hamid, whose biography is already known to you, has now moved away from active political activity.Part of the year, he usually lives with his family in India, and spends the remaining time in his Kabul residence, located very close to government offices, and receives up to 400 visitors per month. In addition, he often gives interviews about events that take place in his homeland and in the Middle East, and his opinion is listened to not only in Afghanistan, but also beyond.