Abdominal dropsy: causes, pathogenesis, symptoms, treatment
Such a disease as dropsy of the abdomen, is characterized by the accumulation of transudate in the abdominal cavity. This pathology is usually recorded in case of liver diseases, heart failure, exhaustion, and metabolic disorders.
Abdominal dropsy: etiology
The accumulation of transudate is most often observed in cirrhosis, amyloidosis, and other liver diseases that cause increased pressure in the portal vein, when the caudal vena cava is compressed by tumors, abscesses, hematomas, in diseases of the heart, kidneys, lungs, cachexia (emaciation), metabolic disorders substances, as well as other pathologies.
Abdominal dropsy: pathogenesis
Stagnation in the portal vein system and in the systemic circulation is central to the development of ascites. This state activates the exit from the vessels of the transudate and limits its resorption into the blood and lymphatic system. This contributes to hypoalbinemia, a violation of the electrolyte composition in the human body.The decrease in the level of albumin in the blood in the pathology of the liver, kidneys and prolonged fasting is accompanied by a decrease in the oncotic pressure of the blood, an increase in the porosity of the capillaries, the release of transudate into the abdominal cavity. The accumulation of a huge amount of fluid contributes to further slowing the flow of blood both in the portal vein and in the great circulation, a violation of metabolic reactions, functions of the lungs, heart, digestive organs (intestines, stomach, pancreas).
Abdominal dropsy: symptoms
In patients the abdominal circumference increases, the walls of the abdominal cavity are tense, painless. Body temperature - within physiological fluctuations; with cachexia, hypothermia is recorded. Patients complain of shortness of breath, general weakness, swelling in the lower limbs. An examination reveals mucous membrane anemia and heart rhythm disturbance. On palpation of the abdominal wall, fluctuation of the fluid is noted, and in percussion, a dull sound. Noise of intestinal motility is weakened or completely absent. When performing an abdominal biopsy, a clear straw-colored liquid flows out.
Abdominal dropsy: diagnosis
The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical signs, as well as the results of a study of punctate of the abdominal cavity. When ascites reveal transudate, with peritonitis - exudate.
Abdominal dropsy: treatment
The therapeutic scheme of treatment is aimed at alleviating the course of the primary disease. To reduce the formation of fluid diuretics prescribed, heart drugs, aldosterone antagonists. With ineffectiveness of conservative treatment methods used laparocentesis. This procedure is best carried out in a hospital. The puncture of the abdominal wall is performed using a trocar. Due to the fact that collapse may occur, the abdominal fluid is released very slowly, usually not more than five liters per puncture. It should be noted that repeated punctures can provoke the development of peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum), as well as fusion of the omentum or intestinal loops with the anterior wall of the abdomen.