100 years ago. Public execution in Petrovsky Park
Former Chairman of the State Council and Minister of Justice Ivan Shcheglovitov. One of those shot on September 5, 1918, on the day of the announcement of the Red Terror
On the day of the official announcement of the Red Terror in the RSFSR, the first public shooting took place. It was produced in Petrovsky Park near Moscow. In the evening there were a lot of people in the park, a truck drove up, Red Army men stood with rifles at the ready. Memories (not very impartial and not very reliable, of course) about the execution itself were left by the lawyer of the two Polish Polish priests Sergei Kobyakov who was shot at that day.
He wrote: “On the morning of September 5 ... the Chekists told the prisoners that the Emergency Commission required those arrested in Lubyanka to re-interrogate ... Many people were brought to the Lubyanka from all places of detention. There they were announced that they would all be shot today. the news, due to its surprise, made a tremendous impression. There were tears, hysterical cries were heard ... They shot everyone in Petrovsky Park.The execution was carried out in public. Chekists shouted the names of the executed. Pointing to Shcheglovitov, they shouted: "Here is a former tsarist minister who shed the blood of workers and peasants all his life ...".
Former chairman of the State Council and Minister of Justice Ivan Shcheglovitov (1906–1915) was considered the patron of the Black-Hundred organizations and the initiator of the well-known anti-Semitic “Beilis case”. I. Kryzhitsky remembered him: "Cold and cruel, this eternally smiling and ready to smile tall old man with pink cheeks invariably rejected all petitions for clemency or condescension."
How did he behave before being shot? Kobyakov: "Old Shcheglovitov, having crossed himself, said in a calm, firm voice:" I am glad to die for the tsar and Russia "."
Former Minister of the Interior Alexei Khvostov in the official uniform of class I-IV
Another shot in Petrovsky Park is the former Interior Minister Alexei Khvostov (1915-1916). A. I. Spiridovich remembered him:
“I’m,” said Khvostov, “a man without detention centers. I really don’t care whether to go with Grishka [Rasputin] to a brothel, or to drop him from the buffer under the train ...
I did not believe my eyes or my ears. It seemed that this fat, pink with perky cheerful eyes, the fat man was not a minister, but some kind of gangster on the high road. "
Kobyakov: "Khvostov expressed hope and faith in a better future for Russia and in defeat of the revolution. When, after a volley, the lightly wounded Tails tried to get out of his premature grave, they pushed him back with a bayonet and poured earth over the living." (In parentheses, I note that "falling asleep in the living earth" in front of the public walking in the park is extremely reminiscent of the "spreading cranberries." That it was shot or stabbed with a bayonet, and then covered with earth, it is possible).
Former Interior Minister Nikolai Maklakov in Chamberlain's uniform
Former Interior Minister Nikolai Maklakov (1912-1915). In 1916, the king was considered as a possible dictator with unlimited powers. He was arrested after February, but, like almost all the royal dignitaries, released by the Bolsheviks. True, Maklakov was not allowed to go home, but to the hospital, from where in 1918 he managed to attend the meetings of the monarchical organization of the famous Black Hundred Markov, who discussed plans to save the royal family.
Before the execution he behaved, allegedly in cold blood.
Former Director of the Police Department Stepan Beletsky
Director of the Police Department Stepan Beletsky (1912-1914). He was related to the shooting of Lena, shortly before this event, he sent a telegram to Irkutsk: "Offer directly to the captain Treschenkov to certainly eliminate the strike committee ...". The committee was "liquidated" by the gallant captain, and several hundred workers were shot at that.
In prison, Beletsky kept saying all the time, according to Kobyakov's testimony: “But the Bolsheviks will not shoot me anyway. I have cyanide, and I will accept it after the death sentence is passed on to me. ” "This idea, apparently, strongly supported his spirit," added Kobyakov. However, because of the unexpectedness of the announcement of the sentence, Beletsky did not take poison with him, and therefore could not fulfill his intention.
The newspapers reported: "Senator Beletsky spontaneously wanted to run, but, seeing the triple chain of protection, he dutifully and gloomily lowered his head." Another testimony: "Beletsky rushed and quickly ran off towards the bushes, steps 20-30, but, overtaken by two bullets, fell, and" dragged him "to the grave, shot and dropped."
Bishop Ephraim (Kuznetsov) and Archpriest John Vostorgov (right)
Archpriest John Vostorgov. The famous Black Hundred monarchist publicist, organizer of the Union of the Russian People and the Union of Michael the Archangel. Known for fierce exposures of Jews in the press, and the name "John Vostorgov" became in those years a kind of nominal designation of an anti-Semite (in this capacity it can be found in Lenin). In 2000, canonized saints.
Strange as it may seem, even Kobyakov considered it his duty to make a reservation about the negative attitude towards the past of Vostorgov: “Many sins were in my heart with Vostorgov. before his death, this man showed the rare greatness of the spirit. He invited everyone to confess with him. And many people reached out for confession. the person who himself had to die in a few hours, for everyone there was a word of consolation. " This scene, if you believe Kobyakova, occurred even during the collection of convicts in the Lubyanka.
And this is from the story of the same execution in Petrovsky Park of Protopresbyter Mikhail Polsky (the degree of reliability, perhaps, is even lower than in the narration of lawyer Kobyakov):
"The arrivals were placed along the grave and facing it ... At the request of Fr. John Vostorgov, the executioners allowed all convicts to pray and say goodbye to each other. Everyone kneeled down and the fervent prayer of the unfortunate" condemned men "flowed, after which everyone came under the blessing of His Grace Ephraim and St. John, and then all forgiven each other. First, he boldly went up to the grave of Father Archpriest Vostorgov, who had said a few words to the others, inviting everyone with the faith in God's mercy and the speedy revival of the Motherland to bring the last redeemer "I am ready," he concluded, turning to the convoy. All of them fell into their indicated places. The executioner approached him from behind, took his left hand, twisted his back and, putting a revolver to the back of his head, fired, simultaneously pushing Father John to the grave. "
The “Reverend Ephraim” mentioned above is Bishop Ephraim, also a well-known Black Hundred. In 1907 he was the organizer of the Trans-Baikal department of the Union of Russian People.He was arrested in the apartment of his like-minded archpriest Vostorgov, with whom he was friends. Now, like Father John, canonized saints.
But, surprisingly, there is at least one person who, 100 years ago, was standing together with all those sentenced in Petrovsky Park that night and, nevertheless, was still alive. It was Ivan Shcheglovitov’s neighbor in Butyrka, Lieutenant Dmitry Sidorov. He recalled:
““ For interrogation at the tribunal, ”they called me and my friends. Sit in the truck. The streets of Moscow flash quickly, rushing fast, clinging to hope, my thoughts. But it's over. We leave the city. Petrovsky Park!
It is already night, quiet and affectionate. A platoon of Red Armymen is waiting for us. "To the wall." Kissing Come on. It is darkening high wall. But still away from this wall. I squat. Volley. We are falling. Suitable Red Army man. "This one is still alive." Shot. I jump up and fly through the park. Screeching bullets, screams. I'm running. Something pricked my leg. But nothing trivia! Swearing: "Oh, you said - you need to knit!".
I run, my jacket flew off, my cap and one shoe too. Hurry to the building of the palace. I climb over the fence. Climbing up to the attic.
Down the chase. Red Army men flew over a couple of lovers, indignant. Female voice:
- Yes, I just went out with Petya to meet.
- And what are you hiding in the bushes? Growls the Red Army man.
“Excuse me, comrade, but I am a Soviet worker myself,” a male voice screams.
“Worker,” the Red Armyman is angry. - Oh you…
And to me, by golly, it is ridiculous ... I tie the wound with a handkerchief. Instant morning, bright. The stairs are steps. I beg her: “Save!”, But in her eyes such horror: “The Bolsheviks are all around, run ...” Well then. I walk, swaying, through the park, holding on to secluded paths. And, of course, I am looking for a policeman. “Who are you?” And so on. Inappropriate questions. We go to the commissariat. And in my heart a strange calm: "Slap him, and put a bullet in the forehead."
The commissar, a very nice guy, looked at me:
- What do you have with foot?
- Got under the tram ...
The Bolshevik police are stupid — but I have no reason to complain about it. I was not even examined and sent to the hospital. But what was there to do, how not to sleep, not to buy some clothes at the worn-in Kerenka pants from the cutest hospital guard, and after reading in Izvestia my name on the list of people shot, do not get into the tramway and go to one hospitable Russian apartment where from then I soon left for the South ... ".